start page Charles V TOUR :   Bishopric of Trento

Charles's contemporaries in the Holy Roman Empire

 

Leonhard von Keutschach, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg 1495-1519
Leonhard comes from a small rural nobility near the Keutschacher See in Carinthia. In 1460 he was canon, in 1495 he was elected Bishop of Salzburg, a career that he owed to his own proven achievements.
With skill and determination he was able to lead the highly indebted archbishopric to economic and cultural prosperity. Pledged goods were redeemed and others acquired. Fortress Hohensalzburg, castles and roads were renewed and expanded. Leonhard promoted mining (silver, gold, salt) and made long-distance trade profitable.
Salzburg had lost all independence in coinage and had not struck own pennies for decades, although it had its own gold and silver mines. Five years after Leonhard came to power, a large number of coins began to be struck: Ducats and their multiples, gold florins, in silver the famous Rübentaler 1504, 1/2 and 1/4 guldiner mainly as commemorative pieces, as well as coins for circulation: Zehner (10 kreuzer), Batzen (4 kr. = 16 pf.), Zweier (2 pf.) , Pfennig and Heller (1/2 pf.).
Foreign policy was peaceful and modest, domestic policy authoritarian. Leonhard ended the long confrontation with the city council in 1511 with cunning and violence: He only released the city councilors who had been invited to a banquet after they had renounced their old imperial privileges and given up their wish to become an "imperial city".
As progressive as the archbishop was in terms of economy and administration, he was conservative in matters of faith. He adhered to the rules of the Augustinian canons and also demamded the canons to wear the order dress.

Uniface Pfennig 1500.   11x12mm, 0,4 g.   Zöttl 86; Probszt 125; BR.534
Date over double coat of arms (bishopric Salzburg and Leonhard's family), below L (for Leonhard).
Leonhard's family coat of arms - a turnip - was always very popular and found its legendary explanations in the vernacular. According to one version, the father is said to have thrown a beet at the son's farewell because he refused to "follow the plow", that is, to become a farmer. The second version describes an encounter between Leonhard and his uncle, who had confronted Leonhard because of his poor academic success and threw him a turnip because of a bold answer.   [H. Zöttl]
In any case, Leonhard's coat of arms attests to his rural origins.

At the instigation of Ks. Maximilian and against Leonhard's will, Matthäus Lang was appointed coadjutor and successor in 1512, which possibly prompted Leonhard to issue the following commemorative coins with his own portrait.


3 ducats klippe 1513.   30x30 mm, 10,4 g.   Zöttl 8; Probszt 55; BR.4.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler the Elder from Hall in Tirol

Obv.:   ¤ LEONARD9us DE KEWTSCH'ach ARchiE'piscopus SAL'isburgensis
"Leonhard of Keutschach, Archbishop of Salzburg"
Quartered arms between date 15 - 13, above miter.

Rev.:   ¤ ORA PRO ME SA - NCTE RVDBERTE
"Pray for me, Saint Rupert"
Tonsured portrait in ecclesiastical robe to the right.
Coins on rectangular blanks are called klippe. They are easier and cheaper to make than round coins. Leonhard's klippes are commemoratives and not emergency coins.
The obverse indicates the issuer of the coinage with title and coat of arms. The squared shield contains the Salzburg bishopric coat of arms (lion | band) and Leonhard's family coat of arms (turnip). This cliff was minted in weights of 6, 5, 4 and 3 ducats. They were likely to have been given out as a gift or reward, but could also be used as a means of payment, as they corresponded to the regular coin value. They were also minted round (Ø 28 mm) in gold as multiple ducats and in silver. These pieces were probably minted in Hall in Tirol.


1/2 Guldiner 1513.   Ø 28 mm, 14,29 g.   Zöttl 51; Probszt 91; BR.63.
Obv.:   Here, the separated bishopric and family coats of arms are tied together with a ribbon.
Legend and portrait as before on the 3 ducats klippe.
This coin was also minted in different thickness, round and as klippe, in silver and gold.
These issues from 1513 are the earliest with a portrait of an archbishop. In addition to these showpieces of a "prince of the church dominated by the cult of personality of the Renaissance" [G. Probszt], ducats, gold guilders and silver coins were also minted for normal use, which show the city saint, St. Rupert with his attribute, a salt barrel.

Look at the marble monument of 1515 in the courtyard of the Hohensalzburg Fortress.


Zehner (10 Kreuzer) 1513.   Ø 29 mm, 5,7 g.   Zöttl 58; Probszt 97; BR.79.
Obv.:   LEONARDVS:D:G:ARCHIEPI:SALZ¤
Coat of arms of the archdiocese and the bishop's family side by side with cross and crook,
above a miter, below the date 1513.

Rev.:   SANCT9us RV - DBERT9us EPiscopuS
Saint Rupert holds a salt vat on his lap with his left hand; with his right hand he grips the shoulder of the kneeling archbishop, who in turn carries a miter and holds a crook.
The 10-Kreuzer-pieces were the largest coin in circulation for the "little man from the street" until around 1560. Thalers and ducats were reserved for the wealthy class. The circulation coins are of lower fineness because of the relatively high production costs.

Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg 1519-40
Bishop of Gurk 1505-22, Cardinal Bishop of Albano since 1535
Matthäus (Matthew), the patrician son born in Augsburg in 1486, entered the service of Archbishop Berthold von Henneberg of Mainz after completing his studies, before becoming secretary and diplomat to the later emperor Maximilian I. Emperor Maximilian rewarded his services to the House of Habsburg with elevation to the nobility in 1498. Wellenburg Castle near Augsburg came into his possession in 1507, and from then on Matthäus named himself after it.
Matthäus sought profitable benefices. With Maximilian's help, he received in 1500 the cathedral provost in Augsburg. In 1505 he became Bishop of Gurk (until 1522). As such, he proclaimed Maximilian on February 5, 1508 in the Cathedral of Trento with papal approval as the "chosen Roman emperor". Matthäus Lang was appointed cardinal and coadjutor in the diocese of Salzburg in 1511. This included the right to became bishop. In order to overcome the objections of the Salzburg cathedral chapter, Matthäus promised in the 'election surrender' the release from the inconvenient religious vows in favor of the simple clergy, thereby contradicting the will of the incumbent Bishop Leonhard von Keutschach. After the death of Leonhard von Keutschach (June 8th, 1519), Matthäus Lang became Archbishop of Salzburg. On the occasion of his inauguration, he was ordained a church priest and a few days later a bishop.
Bishop Matthew had to assert himself against the rebellious citizens in 1523. The peasant uprising followed in 1525. He had to retreat to the Hohensalzburg fortress before the Swabian Confederation provided relief. The devastation of the war forced him to thrift. He fought the spreading Reformation and tried to improve the state administration.

Uniface Pfennig 1522.   12x13 mm.   Zöttl 316.
Date over double coat of arms (bishopric Salzburg and Matthäus's family arms), below M (for Matthäus).
Matthäus's family arms on a ducat: half flower (red in silver field) | half lily (silver in red field).


Uniface cast bronze medal n. d. (1514-19)     Ø 74 mm.   Zöttl 177; BR 554.
Specimen in the Coincabinet from the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

MATHEVS·CARdinalis·GVRCENSis·COADIVTOR·SALSBVRGENSis  -  Bust to the left.
According to the title on the legend, the medal comes from the time when Matthäus was still coadjutor under his predecessor Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach. Habich had attributed the medal to Hans Schwarz, but according to Kastenholz it was not from Schwarz. This portrait medal became the model for the portrait on the coins of Matthäus Lange.


Double Schauguldiner 1521, Hall (so called "Radianataler").
Ø 48 mm, 52,92 g.   Zöttl 185; Probszt 194; BR.561; MT 95; Dav.8156.
Obv.:   MATHEVS·CARDinalis·AR (arms diocese Gurk) CHIEPS·SALZBVRG (family arms)
AC·EPiscopVS·GVRCENsis (arms archdiocese Salzburg)
"Matthew Cardinal, Archbishop of Salzburg and Bishop of Gurk"
Bust with biretta to the left between the date MD - XXI

Rev.:  + ORA·PRO·NOBIS·DEVM·SANCTA·VIRGO·RADIANA
"Holy Virgin Radiana, pray to God for us"
Nimbated holy Radiana attacked by wolves. On the right in the background trees and Wellenburg Castle.
Note the difference between the arms of the diocese Gurk and the archdiocese Salzburg.
Look at the second edition of 1538 of this so called 'Radianataler'.
Blessed Radiana (* around 1300) was a maid at Wellenburg Castle near Augsburg. According to legend, she cared for the poor and the sick in the nearby infirmary and brought them milk, butter and bread. One day she is said to have been attacked by wolves on the way home and seriously injured. She died three days later at Wellenburg Castle and was buried near the infirmary. A chapel was built there, which was granted privileges around 1450 and developed into a place of pilgrimage.
Matthäus Lang was an ardent admirer of blessed Radiana. He had the old chapel in his hometown demolished in 1521 and a new one built. During the inauguration ceremony he distributed this commemorative pieces made in Hall from dies by the die cutter Ulrich Ursenthaler the Elder, who used as model for the reverse an engraving by the painter Hans Burgkmair in Augsburg (1521, 20,5x15,6 cm, Uni. Erlangen).


3 ducats 1521.  Ø 24 mm, 10,6 g.   Zöttl 133; Probszt 148; BR.587; Friedb.583.
Obv.:   +MATHEVS·CARDinalis·ARCHIEPiscopVS·SALZBurgensis  -  Bust right between date MD - XXI.
Rev.:   ·Sanctus·RVD (family arms) BER - TVS (arms archdiocese Salzburg) EPiscopVS
Standing Saint Rupert with halo, miter, salt barrel and crook.
This piece was also issued 2/3 thick as 2 ducats, also as trial-strike in silver, as the following piece shows.


Trial-strike of the 3 ducats 1521 with saint Rupert on the reverse.
1/4 Guldiner 1521.     Ø 24 mm, 6,64 g.   Zöttl 231; Probszt 227.
Exactly as before, but in silver in another weight.
See an apparently identical piece, but which is classified under a different nominal (!):
1/6 Guldiner 1521.   Ø 24 mm, 6,60 g.   Zöttl 237; Probszt 235.


2 Dukaten 1521.     Ø 24 mm, 7,04 g.   Zöttl 136, Probszt 151.
Obv.   Just like before.
Rev.:   +SANCTVS·RVDBERTVS·EPiscopuS·SALZBurgensis
Coat of arms of archdiocese and family side by side under a cardinal's hat.
This piece was also minted with a weight of 2 and 3 ducats,
also as trial-strike in silver, as the following piece shows.


Trial-strike of the 2 ducats 1521 with two joint arms on the reverse.
1/4 Guldiner 1521.     Ø 24 mm, 4,41 g.   Zöttl 230; Probszt 226.
Exactly as before, but in silver in another weight.
See a similar piece, but which is classified under a different nominal (!):
10 kreuzer 1521.   Ø 24 mm, 4,64 g.   Zöttl 240; Pr.238; BR.669.

Interpretation trial: The very handsome showpieces from 1521 with Ø 24 mm were not intended as circulation coins, neither those in gold nor those in silver. The gold pieces weighing 2 or 3 ducats were recognized as such. For the silver pieces, there was apparently no agreement on their value (at least in retrospect). The largest regular coins in circulation at that time were 10 kreuzer pieces (with saints and bishops on the reverse).


4 ducats 1522.     Ø 30 mm, 14,13 g.   Zöttl 126; Pr.157; BR.576; Fried.591.
Obv.:   + MATHEVS·CARDI·ARCHIEPS·SALZBVRGN
Bust to the left in clerical robe with biretta, on the sides the divided date MD - XXII
Rev.:   + SANCTVS·RVDBERTVS·EPVS·SALZBVRGN
Quartered shield with arm of archdiocese and bishop's family, above a cardinal's hat with hanging tassels.
Here a variant without inner circle and with six tassels on the reverse.


Guldiner 1522, Hall.  Ø 38 mm.   Zöttl 202; Probszt 203; BR.632; Dav.8160.
Obv.:   + MATHEVS CARDinalis (arms of diocese Gurk) ARchiEPiScopus·SALZB'urgensis (family arms) AC·EPiscopuS·GVRCENsis (arms of archdiocese Salzburg)
"Matthäus Cardinal, Archbishop of Salzburg and Bishop of Gurk"
Bust to the left with biretta between date MD - XXII.

Rev.: + SanctuS·RVDBERTVS·ET·VIRGILIVS·EPIscopus·SALZBVRGENsis
"Saints Rudbertus and Virgilius, bishops of Salzburg"
The two seated saints of Salzburg with crooks and their attributes: St. Rudbertus with salt barrel
and St. Virgilius with the model of the cathedral.
They appear here for the first time together on one coin.
Rudbertus founded the St. Peter monastery around 700 and became the first bishop of Salzburg. He is said to have discovered the Reichenhall brine springs. Therefore Rupert also became the patron saint of salt mining.
Virgilius of Salzburg, 749-784 Bishop of Salzburg, had the first cathedral built and consecrated to St. Rudbertus. He was a great scholar and was canonized in 1233.


Guldiner 1522, Hall.   Ø 38 mm, 26,6 g.   Zöttl 200; Probszt 202; BR.628; Dav.8161.
Obv.:   ab before.
Rev.:   + MATHEVS CARDinalis (Wappen von Gurk) ARchiEPiScopus·SALZB'urgensis (Familienwappen) AC·EPiScopus·GVRCENsis (Wappen von Salzburg)
Rs.:   + MATHEVS·Misericordia·Dei·CARDinalis·ARCHIEPS·SALZB'·APostolicae·SEdis·LEGATus
"Matthew through the Divine Mercy Cardinal, Archbishop of Salzburg, Legate of the Apostolic See"
Quartered arms, above a cardinal's hat with seven hanging tassels. Behind it crossed cross rod and crook.
The name and title of the souverain are partially repeated on the reverse.
"Misericordia Dei" (Divine Mercy) replaces the usual "Dei Gratia" (God's grace).

Compare the portrait made by Albrecht Dürer in 1522 [388x277 mm, Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina].


1/2 guldiner 1522Ø 38 mm, 13,26 g.   Zöttl 212; Pr.215.
There are two variants: legend with LEGAT or LEG.


1/3 guldiner 1522. Dies by Ulrich Ursenthaler the Elder  Ø 29 mm, 9,33 g.  Zöttl 225; Pr.224; BR.663
Obv.:   +MATHEVS·CARDI·ARCHIEPS·SALZBVRGN   -   Bust to the left.
Rev.:   SANCTVS·RVDBERTVS·EPiscopVS·SALZBVRGN
Quarterd shield under a cardinal's hat, without inner circle, with 6 tassels on each side.


Ducat 1523.     Ø 21 mm, 3,5 g.   Zöttl 123; Probszt 190a; BR.666.
On the suppression of a civil uprising in Salzburg.

MATHEVS· / ·CARDinalis·ARCHI / EPiScopus·SALZBVrgensis· / ·APostolicae·SEdis·LEGatus·
"Matthäus Cardinal, Archbishop of Salzburg, legate of the Apostolic See"
The Salzburg citizens protested against the sovereign and demanded more rights in 1523. Matthäus Lang was able to win the bloodless conflict and thereby strengthen his position of power. The citizens had to waive the disputed rights and take out a compulsory loan of 4,000 guilders.


Zehner 1525 (10 Kreuzer).     Ø 28 mm, ? g.   Zöttl 251, Pr.249; BR.690.
Obv.:   +MATHEVS·CARDinalis·ARchiEPiscopuS·SALZBurgensis   -   Arms of archdiocese of Salzburg and archbishop's family side by side, above a cardinal's hat with hanging cords, below date 15Z5.
Rev.:   ·Sanctus·RVDBER - TVS·EPiscopVS·   -   On the right sits St. Rudbertus with miter and salt vessel, on the left in front of him the archbishop kneels with miter and cloak to the right.


Zehner 1531.     Ø 30 mm, ca.5,5 g.   Zöttl 249; Probszt 247.
Obv.:   +MATHEVS·CARD·AREPS·SALZB   -   Arms of archdiocese of Salzburg and
archbishop's family side by side, above a cardinal's hat with hanging cords, below date 1531.

Rev.:   ·S·RVDBER - TVS·EPVS·   -   St. Rudbertus sits on the left,
the Archbishop kneels in front of him on the right.


Double guldiner 1538.   Ø 48 mm, 52,91 g.   Zöttl 188; Probszt 196; BR.563; Dav.8163.
Obv.:   + MATHEVS· (family arms) EPS·ALBANensis·CARdinaLIS·ARCHIEPS
(arms of archdiocese of Salzburg) SALZBVRG   "Matthew Bishop of Albano, Cardinal, Archbishop of Salzburg"
Bust with biretta to the left, below the date MDXXXVIII.

Rev.:   + ORA PRO NOBIS DEVM SANCTA VIRGO RADIANA
"Holy Virgin Radiana, pray to God for us"
The nimbed holy Radiana attacked by wolves. In the background trees and Wellenburg Castle (left).
Matthew had received the title "Bishop of Albano" [Albano near Rome] from the Pope in 1535.
The legend of the obverse now without the arms of diocese Gurk.
Compare the first edition of 1521 of this so-called 'Radianataler'.


Double guldiner 1538.   Ø 47 mm, 52,91 g.   Zöttl 192; Probszt 201; BR.571; Dav.8164.
On the cardinal dignity. Dies by Ulrich Ursentaler the Elder.

Obv.:   +MATHEVS - EPiscopuS·ALBANensis·CARdinaLIS·ARCHIEPiscopuS - SALZBVRGensis
Bust with biretta to the left, below the date MDXXXVIII.
Rev.:   ⚘AGNOSCE⚘TE⚘DILIGENTES⚘   "Know those who love you"
Quartered shield, above a cardinal's hat with six hanging tassels on each side.
Behind it crossed cross rod and crook.


Guldiner 1539, hybrid.     Ø 39 mm, 26,57 g.   Zöttl 211; Probszt 211; Dav.8166.
Hybrid (mule): obv. from guldiner 1539 (Dav.8165) and rev. from guldiner 1522 (Dav.8160), see above.

Obv.:   +MATHEVS - EPS·CARD·ARCHIEPS - SALZBVR   -   Bust to the left in ecclesiastical robe with biretta, below date MDXXXIX, in the legend arms of archdiocese and bishop's family.
Rev.:   +S·RVDBERTVS·ET·S·VIRGILIVS·EPI·SALZBVRGN
The two seated saints of Salzburg with crooks and their attributes: St. Rudbertus with salt barrel
and St. Virgilius with the model of the cathedral.


1/2 guldiner 1539.     Ø 34 mm, 13,21 g.   Zöttl 217; Probszt 221; BR.654.
Obv.:   +MATHEVS - EPS·CARD·ARCHIEPS - SALZBVR   -   Brustbild l. in geistlichem Ornat mit Birett, darunter die Jahreszahl MDXXXIX, in der Umschrift Stifts- und Familienwappen
Rev.:   ⚘AGNOSCE⚘TE⚘DILIGENTES⚘   "Know those who love you"
Quartered shield, cardinal's hat with hanging tassels, crossed cross rod and crook behind the shield.

The portraits of subsequent archbishops disappear on the Salzburg coins.
They reappear again under Markus Sittikus von Hohenems, 1612-19 (multiple ducats) and under Franz Anton von Harrach, 1709-27 (ducats and thalers).

Ref.:
• Helmut Zöttl :  Salzburg - Münzen und Medaillen 1500-1810. 1.Bd.:1500-1619, Salzburg 2008.
• Probszt, Günther :  Die Münzen Salzburgs, zweite ergänzte Auflage besorgt durch Erich B. Cahn,
      Basel/Graz 1975, daraus ein kurzer Auszug zur frühen Neuzeit.
• Bernhart, Max / Roll, Karl [BR.] :  Die Münzen und Medaillen des Erzstiftes Salzburg, 1929.
• Künker :  Auction 202 (2.2.2012), Salzburger Sammlung Friedrich Popken
• Künker :  Auction 268 (30.9.2015), Erzbistum Salzburg, Slg. Numitor

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