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    Paternal grandfather    

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1493-1519
Maximilian was born in 1459, in 1477 he married Mary, heiress of Burgundy, and in 1493 he succeeded his father Frederic III to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1508, in Trieste, he adopted the title "Roman Emperor Elect" as the Venetians prevented him from travelling on to Rome.
Two double weddings arranged for political reasons helped establish the renown of the House of Habsburg. In 1496 his son Philip the Handsome married Joanna of Castile, and in 1515 his grandson Ferdinand married Anna of Hungary. The marriage of his daughter Margaret of Austria to Joanna's brother remained childless as was the marriage of his granddaughter Mary of Hungary to Anna's brother Louis of Hungary. Thus, Spain and Hungary came to Habsburg.
Maximilian was popular and lovingly called "the Last Knight". His domestic achievements were in particular the proclamation of the "Everlasting Peace" and the establishment of the "Imperial Judicial Court" and the "Imperial Districts". The Emperor, always in need of money, had been promised taxes by the estates of the realm but never received them. Luckily, his cousin Sigismund conceded him possession of the Tyrol, which was extremely rich in silver and yielded a much higher revenue than the taxes would have earned him.
In his Austrian lands, Maximilian modelled domestic reforms on the Burgundy way of administration, which he was prevented from doing in the empire. He was interested in literature and the arts and had his own deeds written up and glorified in the book "Weisskunig", an autobiographical novel started around 1516.




Bronze medal n. d. (1508 or a bit later).     ō 37,8 mm.   Habich I,2, p.XLVI, no.39.
Obv.:   IMPERATOR CAESAR MAXIMILIA∑AVG∑F∑   -   Bust with beret and long hair to the left.
Rev.:  CaESARIS - IMPERIVM  -  Eagle with outstretched wings on globe.
The unknown medalist could be an Italian or a German.
The reverse shows the antique roman coin image of consecratio with the imperial eagle.
The legend CAESARIS IMPERIVM refers to his proclamation as Emperor in Trient on February 4, 1508.

Maximilian's bust on coins


1/4 Guldiner n. d. (1506), Hall.     ō 28 mm, 7,66 g.   Egg p.126, no.1; M/T -, cf.p.35.
Die cutter: Gian Marco Cavalli.

Obv.:   MAXIMILIANVS∑ROMANORum REX (ET)C     (ET) ligated.
Bust with beret and long hair to the left.

Rev.:  ∑MONETA∑NOVA∑COMITATisį∑TIROLIS  -  crowned eagle, arms of Austria on the breast.


1/4 Guldiner n. d.(after 1511), Hall.     ō 27 mm, 7,28 g.   Egg p.126 no.3; M/T 73.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Obv.:   MAXIMILIANVS∑ROMANORum∑IMPerATOR
Renaissance-Bust of Maximilian with uncombed hair, crown and unpretentious armour.
Rev.:   ARCHIDVX∑AVSTRIE∑COMES∑TIROLIS
Crowned double eagle with the arms of Austria and Burgundy on the breast.
Maximilian's predecessor in Tyrol, Archduke Sigismund, had introduced the 6 Kreuzer and the 12 Kreuzer coins ("Sechser" and "Pfundner"), the half Guldiner and the Guldiner (60 Kreuzer equal a golden Gulden). Maximilian was the first to issue the quarter Guldiner (15 Kreuzer). They were minted in small numbers in Vienna, Hall and Sankt Veit in Carinthia. This beautiful Renaissance coin started a new denomination, the quarter thaler, an important coin type until Maria Theresa's times.

Sankt Veit in Carinthia minted a similar 1/4 Guldiner 1515,   ō 28 mm.   Egg p.192 no.9
MAXIMILIAИVS∑AVGVST9 IMP∑CAES∑   //   ARCHIDVX∑KA - RIИTHIE:M∑D∑X∑V∑
with the coat of arms of Carinthia under the double eagle.
This specimen is presented in the Interactive catalog of the Coin Cabinet in Vienna.


1/4 Guldiner n. d., Hall.     bronze, ō 27 mm, 7,80 g.   Egg p.128 no.5; M/T -.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.   Such pieces are known only as trial-strikes in copper. [Egg]

Obv.:   MAXIMILIAN'∑RO∑IMPerATOR∑AC∑GERM
Crowned bust in armor to the right, collar of the Golden Fleece.
Rev.:   ARCHIDVX∑AVSTRIE∑DVX∑BVRGVN∑BRAB
Crowned shield with imperial double eagle surrounded by the coats of arms of Hungary,
Austria/Burgundy and Tyrol, as well as two firesteels with flints and sparks.

Compare profile portraits of Maximilian.


1/2 Guldiner n. d., Hall.     ō 35 mm, 19,47 g.   Egg p.124 no.7.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.
This specimen of the Coin Cabinet in Vienna is presented in the Interactive Catalog.

Obv.:   ∑MAXIMILIANVS:ROMANORVM:IMPERATOR∑
Bust with old facial features to the right, slightly wavy shoulder-length hair, with crown and in armor.
Rev.:   ∑ARCHIDVX:AVSTRIE:COMES:TIROLIS.
Crowned double-headed eagle with shield Austria|Burgundy on the breast.


Ducat 1516, Sankt. Veit.     ō 21mm   3,52 g.   Egg p.192 no.4 ; Schulten 3961.
Obv.:   ∑MAXIMILIA∑IM∑CA∑PIVVS∑
Crowned bust with necklace from the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Rev.:   §DVCATVS+CARENTAИVS+1516
Quartered shield :  Carinthia (band|3lions), Austria (band), Styria (panther) and Carniola.


Ducat 1517, Sankt Veit.     ō 21 mm, 3,50 g.   Egg p.192 no.5 (no picture).
§MAXIMILIA∑IM∑CA∑PIVS   //   ✿DVCATVS'∑CARINTANVS∑1517∑

Maximilian's "KŲnigsguldiner" and "Kaiserguldiner"
(Maximilian on Guldiner as King or Emperor)


KŲnigsguldiner, 1495.     ō 46 mm, 31,67 g.   Egg p.114 no.1; M/T 68; Voglh.7; Dav.8001.
Specimen in the Coin Cabinet KHM in Vienna.   Die cutter: Konrad Koch.

Obv.:   ∑MAXIMILIANИ'∑ROMA'∑REX∑SEMPER∑AVGVST:1 - 495∑
Crowned effigy of the king to the right, with long haired and in armor, with raised sword in his right hand and orb in his left hand, surrounded by a circular frieze of lilies.
Rev.:   One headed royal eagle, on its breast arms of Austria and Tyrol, around 20 arms Wappen of Maximilian's possessions, from the bottom to the right: Hungary (at 6 h), Styria, Carinthia, Upper Austria, Limburg, Brabant (3 h), Alsace, Windic March, Portenau, Pfirt, Habsburg (12 h), Montfort, Kyburg, Nellenburg, Hohenberg, Burgau (9 h), Hainaut, Bohemia, Carniola und Burgundy.
From this extraordinarily rare coinage a second piece is known in Gotha.

Benedikt Burkhart minted more KŲnigsguldiner in Hall 1500-06, but with a changed design.


KŲnigsguldiner, n.d. (1500-06), Hall.     ō 42 mm.   Egg p.120 no.6; Voglh.9; Dav.8003.
Obv.:   §MAXIMILIANVS∑DEI∑GRAtia∑ROMANOR∑REX∑SemPer∑AVGVST'us
Crowned effigy to the right, in the right hand flower scepter, the left hand holding the sword hilt,
St. Andrew's cross on the chest.

Rev.:   ⁕XP(=Christianissimus)∑AC∑Λ(=A)liorum∑REGnorum∑Rex∑HEReditarius ∑Q(=et)∑ARCHIDux∑AVstriaE∑PLVRIumque∑EVROPaE∑ProVInciarum∑PriИceps∑POTEenTIssimus
"Christian and other lands hereditary king and archduke of Austria, most of Europe's countries most powerful prince" (?)   -   The crowned imperial arms with a nimbated, left-facing eagle, flanked by the crowned coats of arms of Hungary and Austria, below the arms of Burgundy and Habsburg.
In between 4x fire iron, flints and sparks, also 1x the golden fleece at the Order-chain.
Compare the reverse with a Composition of arms by Albrecht DŁrer in 1504 [M/T, p.36].
Several variants of KŲnigsguldiner are known, for example with lilied scepter instead of flowered scepter.

After his imperial coronation in 1508 in the cathedral of Trent, Maximilian ordered the production of so-called Kaiserguldiner. They carry adaptations in legend (IMPERATOR) and eagle shield (double eagle). Dies for Kaiserguldiner were made by Ulrich Ursentaler in Hall for coinage after 1511.


Kaiserguldiner n. d. (since 1511), Hall.    ō 43 mm, 30,57 g.  Egg p.120 no.9; Voglh.11; Dav.8005.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.

Obv.:   §MAXIMILIAИVS⦂ROMAИORum⦂IMPERATOR⦂SEMPer⦂AVGV9stus
Crowned effigy with helmet, holding flower scepter and sword hilt.
Rev.:   §PLVRIVMQue∑EVROPaE∑ProVINCIARum∑REX∑ET∑PRINCEPS∑POTeNtissimus
"King of most of Europe's countries and mightiest prince"   -   crowned arms with double eagle between the crowned arms of Hungary and Austria, below arms of Burgundy and Habsburg. In between three fire-iron with flint and sparks, two flintstones with sparks at the top of the crown.
In Flanders the emperor demanded 1517 for new iron from Hall for heavy pennies. Hall initially refused because they feared low-quality competition from Antwerp. The Emperor answered that he did not want to coin money, but to use the dies only for commemorative coins to serve as gifts. Then they sent dies, in which a rosette was punched in order to distinguish the new mintage from their old one. Compare a a specimen minted in Antwerpen (1517) using dies from Hall (ō 43 mm, 30,39 g - Egg 11; Voglh.12 - M&M Basel: Aukt.91 Nr.797 (3.2001, Slg.KŲhlmoos) - 24.000 CHF) and search for differences to the piece from Hall (Egg 9) shown above. They differ only in the rosette, their quality is the same.

Maximilian married in 1477 the hereditary princess Maria of Burgundy (1457-1482).
Maximilian adored his beautiful wife Maria, but they were maried only five years. Two children were born: Philip I the Handsome and Margaret of Austria. Maria died after a riding accident in 1482.


Bronze medal n. d. (c. 1477) by Giovanni Candida.    ō 48,5 mm.
Domanig Portrštmedaillen 6; Armand II.80.1; Kress Coll.225.

Obv.:   ∑MAXIMILIANVS∑FRederici∑CAESaris∑Filius∑DVX∑AVSTRiae∑BVEGVNDiae
Bust of Maximilian with wreath and long hair to the right.
Rev.:   MARIA∑KAROLI∑Filia∑DVX∑BVRGVNDIAE∑AVSTRIAE∑BRABantiae∑Comitissa∑FLANdrae:
Bust of Maria of Burgund to thr right, left the crowned Alliance monogram MM.
Giovanni di Candida was an Italian diplomat, historian, cleric and hobby medalist who became secretary at the court of Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1472, then served the married couple before he moved to France in 1480.

The above cast medal served as model for the subsequent hammered piece.


Wedding Guldiner "1479" n. d. (after 1511), Hall.     ō 44 mm, 30,50 g.
Egg p.158 no.15; M/T 83; Voglh.3.
On the marriage with Mary of Burgundy.   Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Obv.:   §MAXIMILIAN9us∑MAGNANIM9us∑ARCHIDVX∑AVSTRIE∑BVRGVNDia
Maximilian with wreath between ETA - TIS 19 ("age of 19").
Rev.:   §MARIA∑KAROLI∑FILIA∑HERES∑BVRGVND∑BRAB∑CONIVGES
Bust of Maria between ETAT - IS Z0 ("age of 20"), date 1479 at the bottom.
On demand of the emperor the mint of Anwerp made restrikes using dies from Hall, which had been punches with a rosette, see such a restrike from Antwerp (Egg p.158 no.18; Voglh.6).


Wedding Guldiner "1479" (after 1511), Hall.  ō 44 mm, 30,88 g.  Egg p.158 no.17; M/T 84; Voglh.4.
On the marriage with Maria of Burgundy.  Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Obv.:   +MAXIMILIAN9us MAGNANIM9us ARCHIDVX AVSTRIE BURGVNDia
Bust of Maximilian with wreath at the age of 19 between ETA - TIS∑19 / 14 - 79.
Rev.:   +MARIA∑KAROLI∑FILIA∑HERES∑BVRGVND∑BRAB:CONIVGES
Bust of Maria headdressed with a burgundian hennin between ETA - TIS∑Z0 ("age of 20").
Both Wedding Guldiners "1479" show Maximilian being 19 years old and Maria at 20. However, she was 22 years old in 1457. Both commemoratives show effigies of 1479 although they were minted after 1511, when Maximilian's second wife Bianca Maria Sforza - for whom he had felt little affection - had also died.

See medals on Maximilian together with his second wife Bianca Maria Sforza.

Maximilian's commemorative Guldiner

Maximilian liked commemorative coins with his own portrait, took interest in their design and gave them away as presents in order to promote his renown. The coins were much sought after by members of the nobility. They were issued in the weight of a Guldiner or its multiples and therefore rank as coins, not medals, even though they were not used as currency. Unlike small cast medals, these hammered pieces were intended for wide distribution. Maximilian's commemorative coins were artistically and technically a remarkable achievement of the Hall mint. They were minted there on the emperor's direct order and listed as "external expenditure".


Double Schauguldiner 1505, Hall.   Die cutter: Benedikt Burkhart.     ō 44 mm, 47,96 g.
Egg p.150, no.2; M/T 78; Voglh.13var.

Obv.:   +MAXIMILIAИVSDEIGRA - ROMANORREXSEMPERAVGVSTVS
Crowned effigy in armor to the left, scepter in his left hand, sword hilt in his right hand.
Rev.:   +XPIA∑>∑REGNOR∑REX∑HERS QZ ARCHIDVX∑AVSTRE∑PLVRIMAR∑QZ ∑EVROP∑PROVICIAR∑PNS∑DVX∑ET∑D9   = Christianitatis caeterorumque regnorum rex heresque archidux austriae plurimarumque europae provinciarum princeps dux et dominus =
"The Hereditary King of Christian as well as other Realms, Archduke of Austra and of very many lands Prince, Duke and Lord".
Crowned shield with the imperial eagle, surrounded by the Order of the Golden Fleece necklace; on top gothic ornaments and the date ∑1∑5∑ - ∑0∑5∑; to both sides the crowned arms of Old Hungary and Austria; below the smaler arms of Old-Burgundy and Habsburg.
The reverse is still designed under gothic influence. The obverse is already a nice work of the beginning Renaissance. The masterful portrait in high relief and the incident to let the bent left arm extend into the legend, testify the great skill of Benedict Burkhart.
The Coin Cabinet KHM Vienna presents a magnificent specimen in the Interaktiven Katalog.


Schauguldiner n. d. (1517-19), Hall.     ō 39 mm, 28,51 g.   Egg p.154 no.9; M/T -; Voglh.14.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursenthaler.
The legends are located on a dished edge sloping inward.

Obv.:   MAX∑ROmanorum∑IMPerator∑SEMPER∑AVᗡVSTus∑ARCHIDVX∑AVSTriae
Armored bust with Archducal crown to the right.
Rev.:   PLVRIVMque∑QZ∑EVROPaE∑PROVIИCIARVM∑REX∑ET∑PRIИCEPS∑POTEИTISSIMVS∑
"of very many European countries the most powerful King and Prince"
Field completely filled with medieval design: The Emperor rides with a sword in his right hand; before him a servant with lance; under the horse a fallen warrior with sword and halberd; below the arms of Hungary, Burgundy, Habsburg and Austria; top left an angel with the imperial shield.
High relief commemorative "Schautaler" with edges inclined inwards was a speciality of the mint of Hall.
These pieces were produced using precast planchets.
They were partly delivered gold-plated, as in our example.

Sechser: a coin intended for normal circulation


Sechser, n. d., Hall.     ō 23 mm, c. 3 g.   Egg p.132 B3
Obv.:   +MOnᗺTA∑ARᗭhIDVᗭIS:AVSTRIᗺ     in gothic letters.
Effigy in armor with archducal hat, scepter in his right hand and left hand on the hilt.

Rev.:   +Aᗭ∑ᗭO - MITA - TVS∑TI - ROLIS   -   long cross,
in the angles: coat of arms of Tirol (eagle), Hungary (crowned), Austria and Burgundy.
The "Sechser" (6 Kreuzer) was introduced by Archduke Sigismund of Tyrol as part of his "great currency reform" in 1482. This and other silver denominations were intended to closed the gap between the "Kreuzer" and the gold florins (valued 60 Kreuzer). The "Sechser" was so popular and so widespread that it was coined almost unchanged for more than a century.


More coins and medals with Maximilian's effigy:
  - Schilling 1497 from NŲrdlingen [only in German]
  - Double Schauguldiner 1509, Hall as an European emperor with several arms of pretension [in German]
  - Teston 1516 issued during a siege in Verona [only in German]
  - "Enkeltaler" 1518, Sankt Veit, with his grandsons on the reverse
  - Schauguldiner n. d. (1506), Hall, celebrating his wedding with Bianca Maria Sforza [in German].

Ref.:
• Erich Egg: Die MŁnzen Kaiser Maximilians I. - Innsbruck, n. d. (1969)
• H.Moser / H.Tursky [M/T]: Die MŁnzstštte Hall in Tirol 1477-1665 - Innsbruck 1977
• R. Voglhuber: Taler und Schautaler des Erzhauses Habsburg 1484-1896 - Frankfort 1971.
• Heinz Winter: Die Medaillen und SchaumŁnzen ... Haus Habsburg im MŁnzkabinett des KHMs Wien,
    vol.I: Friedrich III. und Maximilian I. - Vienna 2013.

upgraded 10.2015 and 9.2019

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