Ferdinand I, roman king since 1531, emperor 1556-1564
- brother of Emperor Charles V and founder of the Austrian line of Habsburg -
Ferdinand I was born in 1503 in Spain and educated at the court of his grandfather Fernando de Aragón in the Spanish tradition. However, he had to leave Spain in 1517 when his brother Charles V arrived with his Dutch court to become King of Spain. In 1521/22 Charles V ceded him Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Craina, the Tyrol, western Austria and the Habsburg-occupied Württemberg. Ferdinand became King of Bohemia and Hungary, following his brother-in-law Louis II, who died fighting the Turks (Battle of Mohács 1526). Ferdinand united Austria, Bohemia and Hungary, which helped to shield Europe from the Turks. In 1531 Ferdinand was elected Roman King and thus the Emperor's governor and successor. The two brothers were temporarily alienated when Charles V tried to make his son Philip successor to the Empire.
Ferdinand was highly respected even by his political and protestant antagonists because he sought to mediate between the confessions. In 1552 he acted against the Emperor's wishes when he effected the Treaty of Passau together with Maurice of Saxony, thus preparing for the Augsburg Religious Peace of 1555. Charles V was disappointed by these events. He abdicated in 1556 and Ferdinand was crowned emperor in 1558. In Austria, Ferdinand encouraged a centralized administration and favoured the counter-reformation.
Both Charles V and Ferdinand tried to standardize the minting rules for the empire in three monetary ordinances (1524-59).
Ferdinand ruled countries rich in silver resources. From the count of Schlick, he took over mines as well as the mint in Joachimstal, where the "Joachimsthaler" originated. He tried to standardize the varying monetary systems in his countries and had thalers minted in Austria (Hall, Klagenfurt, Linz, Graz, Vienna), in Bohemia (Joachimstal, Kuttenberg, Prague), in Hungary (Kremnitz), in Silesia (Breslau) and in Alsace (Thann). Ferdinand encouraged efforts to design a roller mint machine which could print the design for obverse and reverse simultaneously onto metal strips. A few years after his death, the mint in Hall built such a machine that used the technique successfully for mass production.
As administrator of the county of Tyrol, 1522-1526/9, afterwards as count of Tyrol.
The Tyrol silver production had been pledged for the expenses of Charles V election as emperor. To restart minting in Hall in 1523, Ferdinand had to buy the necessary amount of silver which he later paid with the minted coins. Ferdinand was the emperor's governor in Tyrol until 1526 and did not become Count of Tyrol officially until 1529.
6 Kreuzer n. d. (after 1524), Hall. Ř 24 mm, 2,8 g. Enz.9; Markl 1642; M./T.89.
Obv.: +FERDINANdus·PRINCeps·ET·INFans·HISPaniarum - half-length figure holding sceptre and hilt.
Rev.: ARCHI - Dux·AVSTrie - COMITatus - TIROL
Cross between arms of Austria, Castile, Burgundy and Tyrol.
"Ferdinand, prince and infante of Spain - archduke of Austria and duke of Burgundy. County of Tyrol"
Here Ferdinand does not use the title of a count (comes) of Tyrol.
Since 1529 COMES replaces COMIT in the legend.
As archduke of Austria 1521-1526.
Ferdinand was "Infante of Spain, Archduke (of Austria) and Duke of Burgundy" from birth. Although these titles were not linked to any rights or offices, Ferdinand did not give them up, even after becoming emperor.
Pfundner (12 Kreuzer), 1524, Vienna. Ř 28 mm, 5,82 g. Schulten 4096; Markl 68.
Obv.: +FERDINANDus·PRINCeps·ET·INFANS·HISPANiarum "Spanish ruler and infante (prince)"
Ferdinand with an archduke's headdress.
Rev.: +ARCHIDVX·AVSTRIE·DVX·BVRGVNDIE "archduke of Austria and duke of Burgundy"
quarterly arms of origin: (Austria, 2x Burgundy, Brabant with escutcheons of Flanders and Tyrol) |
(Castile, León, Aragón, both Sicilies, Granada)
As King of Hungary and Bohemia since 1527.
His coins include the new royal titles in the legend.
Pfundner, 1527, Vienna. Ř 28 mm, 5,57 g. Schulten 4109; Markl 84.
Ferdinand with an archduke's headdress
quadripartite arms (Hungary|Bohemia),
above the paternal arms (Austria [band], Old-Burgundy, Castile|León - Aragón, both Sicilies, New-Burgundy
[fleur-de-lis], Brabant and Granada [pomegranate]), centre shield (Tyrol|Flanders). On top the date 15Z7.
The title extends over both sides: "Ferdinand, by the grace of God king of Hungary and Bohemia,
prince of Spain, archduke of Austra, duke of Burgundy".
Thaler 1530, Joachimstal. Ř 40 mm, 28,8 g, 894‰ fine. Diet.109; Voglh.49/5; Dav.8044.
Obv.: FERDINANdus·D·G·BOEM·HVNG·DALmatiae·CROAtiae·REX·INFAns (mm.)
young crowned and beardless half-length figure in armour holding sceptre and hilt,Rev.: HISPaniarum.ARCHIDUx·AVSTrie·DVX·BVRundie·SiLEsiae·MARchio·Moraviae
the order of the Golden Fleece on the breast
crowned quadripartite shield (Bohemia|Hungary) with escutcheon (Austria|Castile).
On the sides the date 15 - 30.
As elected and crowned roman king (ROMANORUM REX) since 1531.
The coin reverse now carries the royal title and the royal eagle (single headed und uncrowned).
The mintage of the new denomination Groschen (3 Kreuzer) began in 1534 in Vienna and Linz.
Groschen (3 Kreuzer), 1549, Vienna. Ř 22 mm, 2,5 g, 500#8240; fine.
Markl 117var; Schulten 4128.
¤FERDINAN·D·G·RO·VNG·BO·RX // 49·INF - HI·AR - CHID - AVST·15 -
The legend on the revers incorporates the four end bits of a cross [german: "Kreuz"],
which gave to the first "Kreuzer" from the Tyrol their popular name.
Even a small field may carry an expresive portrait.
Compare the Dreigröscher [Ř 20 mm] with a realistic portrait from King Sigismund of Poland
from the same period.
Groschen (3 Kreuzer), 1556, Linz. Ř 21 mm, 2,47 g. Hippmann 173F.
+FERDIN·D·G·RO·HVN·BO·REX // ·INFans·HISPaniarum A - RCHIdux:AVStriae·Dux:Burgundiae 1556
Rev.: Eagle with the arms of Austria upon the Enns (Upper Austria), orb and declared value 3,
according to the imperial mint order of 1551.
Reichsguldiner (72 Kr.) 1557, Klagenfurt. Ř 42 mm, 30,61 g, 882 ‰ fine.
minted in some accordance with the 2nd Imperial Mint Order (Augsburg 1551)
Half-length figure of the elder king with moustache, beard and long hair. Finned cuirass with collar
and Fleece Order necklace. Cruciform flower scepter in the right hand and sword hilt in the left.
Rev.: INF:HIS:ARCHID - CARINTIE:Dux:BVR:1557·
Ferdinand is presented here as "Archduke of Carinthia".
Eagle with halo and arms of Carinthia, below an orb and the value 72 kreuzer,
in partial accordance with the imperial mint order.
As Roman Emperor (ROMANORUM IMPERATOR) since 1558.
With his rise in 1558, the imperial double-eagle replaces the single headed royal eagle on the revers.
Also, an imperial crown is added to the double-eagle.
Guldentaler (60 Kreuzer) 1560, Hall. Ř 38 mm, 24,55 g, 931 fine.
M./T.138 var; Voglh.57; Dav:33.
minted in some accordance with the 3rd Imperial Mint Order (Augsburg 1559)
"Ferdinand, Roman emperor by the grace of God, ever augmentor of the empire,Rev.: +INFans·HISpaniarum·ARCHidux·AVSTrie·Dux·BVRundie·COMes·TIRolis·1560
German, Hungarian & Bohemian king"
half-length figure with emperor's crown (bowed crown), orb and declared value on the hand
"prince of Spain, archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, count of the Tyrol"
Imperial crown on top of imperial double-eagle, a shield on its breast :
(Hung.|Bohem.) charged with the shield of Tyrol (eagle)
2 Ducats 1565. Ř 23 mm, 6.86 g. Markl 2086; Coll. Donebauer 1027 (Ag).
At his funeral in Prague in the cathedral St. Veit.
Obv.: ·DIVI·CAESAR·FERDINANDI·PRIMI·(trefoil) - crowned bust in armor to the right.
Rev.: AVGUS / TI·PII·FOE / LICIS·MEMO / RIA·FVNEB / RIS·ANNO / ·1565 (trefoil).
Posthumous roller-press coinage
(During Ferdinand's life time, all coins were hammered.)
Thaler n.d. (posthum 1573-76), Hall. Ř 41 mm, 29 g. Voglh.39/2; M./T.217v; Dav.8030A.
Obv.: ¤ FERD·Dei·Gratia·ROmanorum·HVNGArieque·BOhemie·DALmatie·CROAtie·REX
"Ferdinand, by the grace of God King of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Hungary, Bohemia,Rev.: ¤ INFans:HISpaniarum:ARCHIDVX:AVSTRIE·DVX·BVRGundie
Dalmatia, Croatia" (Ferdinand was elected king of Croatia in 1527.)
Crowned effigy with long hair, moustache, beard, decorated armour, necklace without Golden Fleece;
the left hand holds the sceptre, the right hand grips a sword.
"Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy"
King's eagle with shield of Castile and Austria on the breast.