|More Italian contemporaries|
Andrea Doria (1468-1560)
- Commander-in-chief of the imperial fleet -
Genoese, *1468, 1560. He started out as mercenary for various principals. In 1503 and 1506 he fought against the Corsican rebells on Genua's behalf, and in 1513 he fought against the Turks. In 1522 he entered service with the French and won Genua for them in 1527. After a quarrel with the French, he changed sides and served Charles V, who guaranteed him Genua's freedom. In 1528 Doria and his forces drove the French out of Genoa and were triumphantly received by the city. He renewed the constitution and exercised a predominant influence in the councils of the Genoese republic. Doria became commander-in-chief of the imperial navy. In 1532 he defeated the Turkish fleet near Patras, in 1535 he led Charles' attack on Tunis, and in 1541 he saved the imperial troups when they had undertaken to fight Algier at an unfavourable time of the year and against his advice.
Andreas nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria commanded the 54 galleys on the right side of the "Holy League"-fleet of Don Juan de Austria in the Battle of Lepanto.
Silver medal 1533 by Christoph Weiditz. Ø 84,9 mm. piece in the Kunsthalle Hamburg.
Obv. ·ANDREAE·DORIA· - bearded bust to the left, a bit too small, in the shady arm cut: 1533.
Rev. ·PATRIAE·LIBERATORI· "Liberator of the Fatherland"
Naked Neptune with fluttering garb and the Trident. To the sides two kneeling female figures:
The personifications LIBERTAS (left) presents Neptune a Phrygian cap and PAX (right)
presents him an olive branch.
See details about LIBERTAS and PAX, as shown in Grotemayer's article.
The medal appears to be a late tribute to Doria as liberator of his hometown of Genoa in 1528.
Bronze medal (1541) by Leone Leoni. Ø 41 mm. Armand I 164,9; Bargello 712; Kress 431.
Obv.: ANDREAS - DORIA·Pater·Patriae "Andrea Doria, father of his country"
Bust with beard, order of the Golden Fleece and cuirass, trident at the back, dolphin below.
Rev.: Galley with rower, two men rowing in a boat and a fishman at the coast.
Leone Leoni (1509-1590)
Leoni was in Italy the most influential sculptors of the generation after Michelangelo and a major medalist, die engraver and goldsmith. The first stations of his activity were Ferrara, Venice, Padua, Urbino and Rome.
His contentiousness and self-indulgence brought Leoni often in trouble. 1540 he was convicted of serious bodily injury of the papal goldsmith Pellegrino di Leuti to the galleys, but came free in 1541 through the intercession of Admiral Andrea Doria. Leoni produced in gratitude three plaques for his savior and a medal portrait of Andrea Doria, which he combined with three different reverses: an allegory on freedom, a self-portrait surrounded by a convict's chain, and a galley with a small rowing boat in front, which is considered to be the one that took Leoni ashore. Andrea Doria is presented as ruler of the sea, with trident and dolphin in the antique way.
Leoni also worked at the mint in Milan, where he was supported by the governor Ferrante Gonzaga. With his recommendation Leoni received orders of the House of Habsburg for various medals and sculptures.
Medal (1541) by Leone Leoni. Ø 41 mm. Armand I 164,8; Kress 430.
Self-portrait from Leone Leoni, surrounded by chains and manacles.
A hammer and an oper leg-iron on his back and a galley in the background.
This is an alternative reverse to the above medal for Andrea Doria.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)
He was born in Tuscany near Florence and started his art education at the age of 13. A year later, he moved to the art school of Lorenzo de Medici, where he was promoted by Lorenzo as his own son. Michelangelo created his first masterpiece, the "Pietà" in St. Peter's Basilica, in 1498-99. Orders for painting, sculpture and architecture, mainly in Rome and Florence, made him the most famous artist of all time.
Bronze medal (1561) by Leone Leoni. Ø 60 mm.
Attwood 61; Pollard 500 = Kress 429; Börner 738; Scher (Currency of Fame) 52.
Obv.: MICHAELANGELVS·BONARROTVS·FLO·Rentinus·AEtatisSuae·ANNnis - 88·
"... in his 88th year of life" (Michelangelo, however, was 85 years old when he sat model.)
Draped effigy to the right, on truncation the signature LEO.
Rev.: DOCEBO·INIQVOS·Vias·Tuas·ET·IMPII·AD·TE CONVERtentur. [ET ligiert]
"I shall teach the unjust that they and the impious become converted to you." (Vulgate Ps.50:15)
An old blind man in the guise of a pilgrim, waking to the right behind his dog against a background of trees. In his right hand he holds a staff, a water flask, and the dogg's leash.
In an earlier version, the dog leash is taut.
Compare the oil painting c.1544 by Daniele da Volterra (detail out of 88x64 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.)
Paolo Giovio (1483-1552)
Paolo Giovio comes from Como, studied philosophy and medicine and became Bishop of Nocerat in 1528. He worked as a doctor, humanist and historian in Rome and Florence. In his villa on Lake Como, which he called 'Museo', he built up a remarkable collection of portraits of important personalities. He ordered naturally as possible portraits and wrote short biographies. His collection, which was to become public, reached 484 portraits. After Giovio's death, Cosimo I de Medici asked the artist Cristofano dell'Altissimo to copy Giovio's paintings. By 1591, about 280 copies of the picture arose, which were preserved in the Uffizi.
Bronze medal 1532 by Ludwig Neufahrer. Ø 66,5 mm.
Habich II/2 1309a; Wettstreit in Erz, p.192 no.92.
PAVLVS IOVIVA EPiscopuS· NVCERIAE 1532
Bronze medal 1552 by Francesco da Sangallo. Ø 96 mm.
Attwood 795; Armand I 156,1; Toderi/Vannel 1418; Bargello 309.
Obv.: ·PAVLVS IOVIVS COMENSIS EPISCOPVS NVCERINVS·Anno·Domini·Nostri·Salvatoris·M·D·LII
Bearded bust to the left, with hat, coat, fur collar and shirt.
Rev.: NVNC DENIQVE VIVES "Now you will finally live"
A tall man (Giovio) pulls a resurrected man from the grave with his right arm. A big book under
the left arm (Giovios "Elogia" with the written biographies).
The piece of the British Museum shows the signature at the bottom of the raised bust:
FRANC SANGALLVS FACIEB "Franz Sangallus did it".
Tiziano Vecellio (1488/90-1576)
Tiziano Vecellio, called Titian, born in the Veneto north of Venice, began his art education in Venice. In 1513 he opened his own workshop and became an artist celebrated throughout Europe. He was knighted by Emperor Charles V to the peerage and appointed its court painter in 1533. At the invitation of Pope Paul III, he traveled to Rome in 1545. He accompanied Charles V and his son Philipp II to the Imperial Diet of Augsburg in 1548 and 1550. When Titian died of the plague at an advanced age in 1576, he was probably the most successful painter in Venetian history. His works were incorporated in the collections of the Vatican, the Italian high aristocracy and the Habsburgs already during his lifetime.
Uniface gilt bronze medal n. d. (c.1645) by Claude Warin (c.1607-54).
Ø 107 mm, 195,1 g. the piece in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon.
VERA·TITIANI - EFFIGIES· "True picture of Titian"
Bust to half left, in the arm section at 4h: VARIN
The sculptor and medalist Claude Warin (active 1630-54) worked as a die cutter in Lyon. He also aptly reproduced the obverse from the above Michelangelo medal by Leone Leoni in a larger uniface medal.
Silver medal n. d. Ø 15 mm, 3,66 g.
TITIANVS VECELLI - Bust to the left. // COLORVM PARENS - Sun with face.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Leonardo da Vinci, born in Vinci about 30 km west of Florence, was an Italian painter, sculptor, architect, anatomist, mechanic, engineer and natural philosopher. He is considered one of the most famous polymaths of all time.
Silver medal 1669 by G. L. Hérard on the 150th anniversary of Leonardo's death. Ø 56 mm, 76,39 g.
Wurzbach 9152 (bronze); Coll. Ampach 9709; Wellenheim 15014 (lead)
Obv.: ·LEONARDVS·VINCIVS·FLORENTINVS· - Bust left with long hair, beard and cap.
Rev.: ·SCRIBIT·QVAM·SVSCITAT·ARTEM· "He describes the art which he revives"
Crossed feather and brush, above wreath, below landscape. Exergue: 1669.
Compare the drawn portrait 1515-17 by Francesco Melzi. [Wikipedia / British Royal Collection]
Bronze medal (1952) by R. Lojy, on the 200th birthday of Leonardo. Ø 82 mm.
Obv.: MDC - LII / LEO - NARD / DE·VIN - CI / MDM - LII
Head from the front, signature next to it.
Rev.: ·NE·SAIS-TU· - ·PAS·QUE· / NOTRE·AME· _ ·EST·FAITE· / ·D' HAR- - -MONIE·
"Dont you know, that our soul is made of harmony?"
Sketch ca.1490 (with notes from one of Leonardo's diaries), showing a man with outstretched extremities in two superimposed positions.
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The translation from German was finished thanks translate.google.com.