start page Charles V TOUR :  Malatesta in Rimini

Kingdom of Naples
Part 1 on an own page :
Alfonso V (King of Aragón 1416-1458) as well I (King of Naples 1442-1458)
Ferdinando I (Ferrante) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1458-1494
Alfonso II d' Aragona, King of Naples 1494-1495
here Part 2 on this page :
King Charles VIII of France, also in Naples 1495
Ferdinando II (Ferrantino) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1495-1496
Federico III (I) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1496-1501
King Louis XII of France, also in Naples 1501-1503
Ferdinando and Isabella the Catholics, also in Naples 1503-1504
Ferdinando the Catholic alone, also in Naples 1504-1516
Carlos I of Naples and Sicily 1516-1554, since 1519 Emperor Charles V

King Charles VIII of France, also in Naples 1495
- born 1470, King of France 1483-1498 -
Invited by Ludovico Sforza, King Charles VIII of France undertook the so-called first French campaign to Italy in 1494/95. He conquered Rapallo, then subjugated Florence and Rome. After the abdication of King Alfonso II of Naples in favor of his son Ferdinando II, King Charles VIII finally reached his destination Naples in February 1495, which he claimed as the indirect legal successor of the House of Anjou. Then he was crowned as King of Naples without a papal legate. As a reaction to the quick french successes, the League of Venice against France was formed under the leadership of the Borgia-Pope Alexander VI. Charles then withdrew with his army to Lombardy, where he had to leave the booty of his Italian campaign in the battle near Fornovo (July 6th, 1495) before he reached France.
The contact with the Italian Renaissance resulted in the first medals on a king of France.


Cast bronze medal ca.1495, Niccolò Fiorentino (1430-1514) zugeschrieben.     Ø 94,6 mm.
Armand I 89/22; Bargello I 233; Hill Corpus 945; Kress 262( nur Vs.); The Pursuit of Immortality 27.
Specimen from Exhibition of Scher Collection in The Frick Collection in 2017, New York.

Obv.:   ·KAROLVS·OCTAVVS·FRANCORVM·IERVSALEN·ET CICILIE REX·
"Karl VIII., Kg. von Frankreich, Jerusalem und Sizilien"
Bust to the left, with light beard wearing a pendant of the Order of Saint Michael.

Rev.:   VICTORIAM·PAX·SEQV - ETVR   "Frieden wird dem Sieg folgen"
Victory holding sword and palm branch, standing on car, pulled by two horses,
at right in front walks Peace holding olive branch all set on rough ground.


Cast bronze medal ca.1495 by an Italian artist.     Ø 55 mm, 87,03 g.
Armand 105/0(obv.) -(rev.); Hill Corpus 1120; Kress -; Pollard (2007) 344.
Specimen from the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Obv.:   CAROLVS REX FRANCORVM CHRISTIANISSIMVS VIII
Bust to the left, short beard, cap with a foldable edge and coat.
Rev.:   VICTORI GLORIA MAIOR ERIT   "To the victor will be the greater glory"
Exergue: Senatus Consulto
  "By the decree of the senate"

Ferdinando II (Ferrantino) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1495-1496
- son of Alfonso II and grandson of Ferdinando I -
His father had abdicated in early 1495 because of general dissatisfaction and the advancing French troops. After King Charles VIII of France left Naples again, Ferdinando II was able to defeat the French garrison in Naples, but needed Spanish help to defeat the French viceroy. Shortly afterwards Ferdinando died childless. He was succeeded as King of Naples by his uncle Federico III (I) d'Aragona.


Ducato n. d.    Ø 22 mm, 3,49 g.   CNI XIX 233/2var; Pannuti/Riccio 1a; Friedb.821.
Obv.:   In⦂DEXTERA◦TVA◦SALVS⦂Mea⦂Domone   -   Crowned bust, behind T.
Rev.:   FERRANDVS⦂II⦂D⦂G⦂R◦SICILIE   -   Quartered arms Naples / Aragón.


Cavallo.    AE   Ø 18 mm, 1,51 g.   CNI -; MIR 363.
Obv.:   FERd◦ INANDV - S◦REX   -   Bust in armor with a crown of rays.
Rev.:   EQVITAS REGNI   -   Horse walking to the right, left leg raised; in front of it a crowned column; above rosette; in section *T* (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster 1488-1514).


Cavallo.    AE   Ø 18 mm, 1,69 g.   CNI -; MEC -; MIR 363.
FERDINANDVS REX   //   EQVITAS REGNI     Similar as before.


Cast bronze medal (ca. 1494) by Adriano Fiorentino (ca. 1450/60-99).    Ø 73,6 mm.
Armand I 101/1; Hill Corpus 335; Kress 104.
Specimen in The Frick Collection, Gift from Stephen K. and Janie Woo Scher, NY.

Obv.:   FERDINANDVS ALFONSI DVCis·CALABriae·Filius·FERDinandi·REGis·Nepos·DIVI·ALFONsi·PRONepos·ARAGONEVSᏪ
Bust to right, with long hair, wearing cap with mark W on the edge. CAPVE - PRINCEPS
Rev.:   PVBLICAE FELICITATIS SPES   -   Felicitas seated to left, holding ears of corn and waving cornucopiae over her head; eagle in field left, W below her chair.


Cast bronze medal (ca. 1494) by Adriano Fiorentino (ca. 1450/60-99).     Ø 52,2 mm, 84,86 g.  
Armand I 101/2; Hill Corpus 337; Kress 105.     Specimen in the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Obv.:   FERDINANDVS·II·DE·ARAGONIA·REX·SICILIAE·VNGARIAE·HIERVSALEMᕠ
Bust to the right, with long hair, hat and W on the edge of the hat.
Rev.:   LIBERATORI VRBIVM
Janus head (double head with male and female face) and sword.

Federico III (I) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1496-1501
- 2nd son of Ferdinando I - brother of Alfonso II - uncle of predecessor Ferdinando II -
At the age of 44, Federico III (or I according to the more recent counting) succeeded his nephew Ferdinando II on the throne of Naples.
King Ferdinando II the Catholic of Aragon and King Louis XII of France decided in a secret treaty in 1500 to divide the Kingdom of Naples among themselves. In 1501 French troops occupied Naples. Federico III, who knew nothing of the secret treaty, asked for Spanish help and opened the Calabrian fortresses to the Spaniards. As soon as he realized the relative's betrayal, he made arrangements with the French, to whom he ceded his kingdom in exchange for the county of Maine, which was to be passed on to his heirs with a life pension.
With Federico III ended the branch line of the House of Aragón in the Kingdom of Naples.


Ducato, Naples.    Ø 23 mm, 3,43 g.   CNI XIX 243/1; PR 2; MIR 105/1(Obv)&?; Friedb.822.
Obv.:   +FEDERICVS⦂DEI⦂G⦂REX⦂SI⦂HIERV   -   Crowned bust to the right, mintmaster mark T.
Rev.:   CONFIRMata - Est⦂SVper⦂NOs⦂Eius◦Misericordia   "His mercy is poured out on us"
Quartered arms Aragon/Naples, above it a crowned helmet with a winged dragon as a crest ornament.


Ducato n. d.    Ø 22 mm, 3,31 g.   CNI 245/12; PR 4; MIR 105/3; Friedb.822.
Rev.:  ◦FEDERICVS◦D◦G◦R◦SI◦Hl◦  -  As before, the bust reaches below into the area of the inscription.
Obv.:   ◦CONFIRMATa◦Est◦SVPer NOS◦MisericordIA◦EIus◦   -   As before.


Carlino.    Ø 27 mm, 3,97 g.   CNI ??; PR 5; MIR 106.
Obv.:   +FEDERICVS⦂DEI:G:R⦂SIC·HI   -   Crowned bust to the right with long hair,
behind T (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster).

Rev.:   +RECEDANT⦂VETERA  "let ancient rites depart"
Opened book with an open buckle surrounded by 9 flames.


Carlino.    Ø 27 mm, 3,94 g.   CNI ??; PR 5; Biaggi 1706.
Obv.:   +FEDERICVS⦂DEI⦂G⦂R⦂SIC⦂HIER   -   As before.
Rev.:   +RECEDANT⦂VETERA  "let ancient rites depart"
Opened book with an open buckle surrounded by 7 flames.


Mezzo carlino.    Ø 22 mm, 1,79 g.   CNI 58var; PR 8; MEC 1065.
Obv.:   +FEDERICVS - DEI GRAcia SICiliae Hierusalem
Gekröntes Wappen Aragón / Neapel (Ungarn/Anjou/Jerusalem)
Rev.:   ⦂◦DomiNuS◦Mihi◦AdIVTor◦ - ◦ET◦EGO◦Despiciam◦Inimicos◦Meus
"God is my assistant and I despise my enemies"  -  King enthroned from the front with scepter and orb.


Sestino n. d.    Cu   Ø 21 mm, 2,02 g.   CNI 255/99ff; PR 12; MIR 109.
Obv.:   FEDERICVS◦D◦G◦R◦SI   -   Crowned bust to the right with long hair.
Rev.:   +SIT⦂NOMEN⦂DNI⦂BENEDI   -   Cross potent.


Cavallo o. J.    Cu   Ø 19 mm, 1,64 g.   CNI 257/126; PR 19; MIR 110/9.
Obv.:   ◦FEDERICVS◦◦◦REX◦   -   Gekrönte Büste mit langem Haar rechts.
Rev.:   ◦EQVITAS◦REGNI◦   -   Horse striding to the right, star above it, in the exergue ◦*L*◦.


Cavallo n. d.     AE   Ø 19 mm, 1,17 g.   CNI 262/172; PR 21; MIR 110/13.
As before, but bust to the left and horse to the left.


Cast bronze medal ca.1490 by Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1501)    Ø 55 mm.
Hill Corpus 312b:   Specimen in The British Museum, without picture.
with a matching photo by Sailko for Wikipedia, 2013, no further details.

Obv.:   FEDERICVS FERDIN REGIS FI
Bust facing left, wearing round cap with back edge turned up, and chain over robe.
Rev.:  Unicorn to the left, dipping horn into stream from which serpents escape; five trees in background.

King Louis XII of France, also in Naples 1501-1503
King Louis XII undertook the so-called second French campaign to Italy. First he conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1499/1500 eliminating Ludovico Sforza. The conquest of Naples followed in 1501. The subsequent power struggle with his former allied King Ferdinand the Catholic was lost in 1503, while Milan remained with him until 1512, and Asti was lost much later under his successor King Francis I in 1529.


Ducato n. d. (1502)    Ø 22 mm, 3,50 g.   CNI 264/2var; PR 1; MEC 1082; MIR 111; Friedb.826.
Obv.:   LVDOvicus⦂FRANciae◦REGNI◦Que◦NEAPolotani◦Rex◦   -   Crowned bust to the right.
Rev.:   +PERDAM⦂BABILLONIS◦NOMEN  "I want to spoil the name of Babylon" (Jesaja 14,22)
Crowned arms of France (three lilies).
The purpose of this legend was interpreted differently, most recently as a threat to Pope Alexander VI in 1502. [E. Bernareggi, 1981]. The ambiguous policies of the Borgia Pope, who at first had excellent relations with Louis XII but then moved closer to Spain, certainly did not please the French sovereign.


Carlino n. d.     Ø 25 mm, 3,49 g.   CNI 265/13var; PR 3; MEC 1084; MIR 112.
Obv.:   ⚜LVDOvicus⦂FRANciae⦂Re - GNIQue⦂NEAPolitani◦Rex
King enthroned from the front with a lily scepter in his right hand and the hand of justice in his left.
At the feet two lions turned to the sides.

Rev.:  ⚜EXVLTENT◦ET◦InME⦂LETENTVR·OmNeS
"All (peoples) rejoice and shout out to me "(Psalm 67:5)   -   Cross potent supplemented with lilies.

Ref.:
E. Bernareggi : Sul ducato d'oro di Ludovico XII per NapoliRevue Numismatique (1981) 23, S.125-132

Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholics, also in Naples 1503-1504
King Ferdinand the Catholic signed a secret treaty with King Louis XII of France about the division of the Kingdom of Naples in 1500. While the French were conquering Naples, the beleaguered Federico III (the last regent of the Neapolitan side line of Aragón) asked for Spanish help. A Spanish army came, not to help but to establish Spanish rule. Naples and its entire hinterland became a Spanish viceroyalty at the end of 1503 and remained so until after the Spanish War of Success (Peace of Utrecht 1713).


Ducat (1503-04).     Ø 23 mm, 3,50 g.   CNI 269/5var; PR 1; MEC p.335; Fridb.827.
Obv.:   +QVOS⦂DEVS⦂CONIVNGIT◦HOMO⦂NON SEParet
"Those who were copulated by God shall nobody separate."   -   nn.
Rev.:   FERNANDVS◦ET◦HELISABET◦D⦂G⦂
Quartered arms between I - T: (mark of mintmaster Giancarlo Tramontano)
1. & 4.: Casile / León.   2.: Aragón / Naples (Jerusalem/Anjou/Hungary).   3. Aragón / Sicily.
below: Granada (pomegranate).
This ducat celebrates the Spanish annexation of the Kingdom of Naples. It was minted between December 1503 and November 1504 when Queen Isabella died.
Model was the earlier Spanish excelente, very similar but without the coat of arms of Naples.


Carlino n. d.    Ø 25 mm, 3,50 g.   CNI 8; PR 2; MEC 929; MIR 115.
Obv.:   +FERNANDVS◦ET◦HELISABET⦂D⦂G⦂   -   Crowned bust to the right,
T for Gian Carlo Tramontano, mint master 1488-1514.

Rev.:   +REGES◦ISPANIE ET◦VTRIVSQVE SICiliae   "Kings of Spain and both Sicilysen"
Crowned bust to the left.
The word "Spain" and title "Spanish Kings" (Reges Hispanie) appears for the first time
on a coin and outside of Spain; but Spain was not yet realy united.

Ferdinando the Catholic alone, also in Naples 1504-1516
After the death of his wife Isabella in 1504, Ferdinando continued to rule alone, but only in his territories and not in Castile, where his daughter Juana was officially the successor and Juana's husband Philip the Handsome quarreled with Ferdinando over government power. The successor of all Spanish territories was finally in 1516 his grandson Carlos I, who was elected Emperor Charles V in 1519.


Ducat n. d.    Ø 23 mm, 3,48 g.   CNI 273/8; PR 2a; MEC 932; MIR 117/2; Friedb.828.
Obv.:   +FERNANDVS◦ - D◦G◦R◦AR◦V◦S   -   Crowned bust to the right.
Rev.:   FERNANDVS◦D◦G◦R◦AR◦V◦SI◦   -   Crown over quartered shield between mint mark I - T:
1. & 4.: Castile / León,   2.: Aragón / Naples (Jerusalem/Anjou/Hungary),   3. Aragón / Sicily,
at the bottom: Granada (pomegranate).
León and Castile were officially subordinate to Ferdinand's daughter Juana, but Juana's father Ferdinand and Juana's husband, Philip the Fair, quarreled over government power until Philip's death in 1506.


Carlino n. d.    Ø 25 mm, 3,59 g.   CNI 24var; PR 4.
Obv.:   +FERNANDVS⦂ET◦ELISABET◦D G   -   Crowned bust to the right,
G for mintmaster Marcello Gazzella, 1515-1528.

Rev.:   +R:ARGONVM*E - VTRIVSQ◦SI⦂E   -   Quartered shield:
1st & 4th: Castile/León,   2nd: Aragón/Neapel,   3rd: Aragon/Sizilien,   below: Granada.

  Ferdinand the Catholic was followed by his grandson King Carlos I of Naples and Sicily in 1516,
becoming Emperor Charles V in 1519.  


Kingdom of Naples, back to Part 1:
Alfonso V (King of Aragón 1416-1458) as well I (King of Naples 1442-1458)
Ferdinando I (Ferrante) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1458-1494
Alfonso II d' Aragona, King of Naples 1494-1495

Ref.:
• Corpus Nummorum Italicorum [CNI], vol. XIX - CNI-Indici vol.XIX
• Pannuti / Riccio [PR]: Le monete di Napoli, Lugano 1984
• Biaggi / Elio: Monete e Zecche Medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV, Turin 1992
• Grierson / Travaini [MEC]: Medieval European Coinage, vol.14: Italy III, Cambridge 1998
• Fabrizi, D. [MIR]: Monete Italiane Regionali, vol.8: Napoli, Edizioni Numismatica Varesi 2010
• napoliaragonese.it: Archivio della categoria: Numismatica
• numismatica-italiana.lamoneta.it: Regno di Napoli

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