start page Charles V TOUR :  some more Italians

Kingdom of Naples
Alfonso V (King of Aragón 1416-1458) as well as I, King of Naples 1442-1458
Ferdinando I (Ferrante) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1458-1494
Alfonso II d' Aragona, King of Naples 1494-1495
Part 2 on a separate page :
King Charles VIII of France, also in Naples 1495
Ferdinando II (Ferrantino) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1495-1496
Federico III (I) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1496-1501
King Louis XII of France, also in Naples 1501-1503
Ferdinando and Isabella the Catholics, also in Naples 1503-1504
Ferdinando the Catholic alone, also in Naples 1504-1516
Carlos I of Naples and Sicily 1516-1554, since 1519 Emperor Charles V

Alfonso I, King of Naples 1442-1458
- Alfonso V, King of Aragón 1416-1458, as well as Alfonso I, King of Naples 1442-1458 -
Alfonso, born 1396, followed his father Fernando I of Aragón in 1416 as King Alfonso V of Aragón and King Alfonso I of Sicily. Called to Naples in 1421 because of inheritance disputes in the dynasty of Anjou, he was able to establish himself after years of fighting as King Alfonso I of Naples with papal fief in 1442. He moved his court to Naples and received the nickname ''the Magnanimous".
After his death, the kingdoms of Aragon and Sicily fell to his brother Juan, while the kingdom of Naples went to his illegitimate son, Ferdinando I of Naples.

Ducatone or Alfonsino d'oro.     Ø 29 mm, 5,26 g.   CNI XIX 54/1-12; PR 1a; Friedb.348 (Gaeta).
Obv.:  +ALFOnSVS⦂Dei⦂Gratia⦂Rex⦂ARAGOnum⦂Siciliae⦂ᗭitra⦂VLtra⦂FArum
"Alfonso, by the grace of God, King of Aragon, Sicily on both sides of the Pharo (narrowest point between Sicily and the mainland)"
  -   Arms Aragón (pallets) / Naples (Jerusalem, Anjou & Hungary).
Rev.:   +⦂DominuS⦂ᙏeus⦂ADIVTOR⦂ᗺT⦂ᗺGO⦂DᗺSPIciam⦂InImicos⦂ᙏᗺus
"God is my support and I despise my enemies"
  -   The king on horseback gallops to the right and swings his sword; to the side B (Jacopo Baboccio da Piperno, mintmaster).
CNI only mentions the mintmark S and M (CNI 1 and 5).

In anticipation of the conquest of the city of Naples, Alfonso d 'Aragona set up his court in Gaeta (100 km north of Naples) in 1436 and immediately began to mint coins as "King of Aragon and Sicily Citra and Ultra Faro by the grace of God".
The Alfonsino was worth 1½ ducats or 15 silver carlini.

Ducatone or Alfonsino d'oro.     Ø 28 mm, 5,26 g.   CNI XIX 57/20-25var; PR 2; Friedb.816.
Rev.:   +DnS·ᙏ·ADIVTO·ᗺT ᗺGO·DᗺSPICIA·InIᙏIᗭ·ᙏ·
As before, but the coat of arms mirrored to the side (Naples / Aragón) and without a mintmark.
Did the mint in Gaeta put the arms of Aragon on the first position of the shield on the obverse, while the mint in Naples changed to arms of Naples at the first position?

Carlino n. d.     Ø 27 mm, 3,52 g.   CNI 63/69; PR 3e.
Obv.:   +⦂ALFOnSVS⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂ARAG⦂Siciliae⦂ᗭitra⦂Vltra⦂Farum:   -   Arms Aragón / Naples.
Rev.:   +⦂DominuS⦂ᙏeus⦂ADIVTor⦂ᗺT⦂ᗺGO⦂DᗺSpiciam⦂Inimicos⦂ᙏeus
König thront von vorne zwischen zwei Löwenprotomen und hält das Lilienzepter in der rechten Hand
und die Kreuzkugel in der linken, links in Feld ein S.

Carlino n. d.     Ø 25 mm, 3,61 g.   CNI 73/165; MIR 73.
Obv.:   +⦂ALFONSV⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂AR⦂S⦂C⦂V⦂F⦂   -   Quadriertes Wappen: Neapel (Ungarn/Anjou/Jerusalem) / Aragon. Der Stern im dritten Quadranten ist in keinem Katalog erwähnt.
Rev.:   +⦂DNS⦂M⦂ADIVT⦂ET⦂EGO⦂D⦂I⦂M⦂   -   Gekrönter König von vorne, sitzt zwischen zwei Löwenprotomen, hält ein Lilienzepter schräg an seine Schulter und eine Kreuzkugel; auf dem Feld links kleiner Adler mit ausgebreiteten Flügeln und nach rechts gedrehtem Kopf.

Reale n. d.     Ø 23 mm, 3,00 g.   CNI 78/209; PR 7; MEC 872.
Obv.:   +⦂ALFOnSVS⦂D⦂GRATIA⦂RᗺX⦂   -   Crowned bust forward.
Rev.:   +⦂ᗭIᗭILIae⦂ᗭITRA⦂ᗺT⦂VLTRa⦂   -   Arms Naples (Hungary/Anjou/Jerusalem) / Aragón (pallets).

Denaro n. d.    Ø 15 mm, 0,55 g.   CNI 81/268; PR 16; MEC 877.
+*ALFOnSV*D*G*   //   starts at 6h: +*G*R*ARagon*Siciliae*ᗭitra*Vltra*Faro*

The images and characters of Alfonso's coins looks from the Middle Ages.
The following medals, however, are already in the Renaissance without a transition.

Touch the illustration with the cursor to see the obverse.
Cast bronze medal 1449 by Pisanello (Antonio Pisano, c.1395-1455).     Ø 109 mm.
Armand I 6/17; Hill Corpus 41; Kress 19; Bargello 16; Börner 24; Pollard (2007) 21.
Specimen in the Coin Cabinet, Staatliche Museen, Berlin

Obv.:   ·DIVVS·ALPHONSVS·REX· // ·TRIVMPHATOR·ET· / ·PACIFICVS·   -   Portrait in armor to the right, flanked by a helmet (left) and a crown (right between the date M / CCCC / XLVIIII).
Rev.:   ·LIBERA - LITAS· / ·AVGV - STA·
On a branch amidst rocky landscape an eagle on dead game, surrounded by four vultures.
Below the signature
Pisanello, who came to Naples as a well-known portraitist in 1448, first made a
study in ink (29x20 cm, Louvre, Paris) to demonstrate his skills - shown by

Cast bronze medal n. d. by Pisanello (Antonio Pisano).     Ø 108 mm.
Armand I 6/18; Hill Corpus 42d; Kress -.
Specimen in The British Museum, London.

Obv.:  DIVVS ALPHONSVS ARAGOniae SISIliae VAlentiae HIErosolimae HVNgariae MAioricarum SARdiniae CORsicae REX COmes BArcironae DVx AThenarum Et Neopatriae Comes Rosciglionis Ceritaniae
Bust to the right, with thick hair, in a fur-trimmed coat; underneath an open crown.
Rev.:   ·VENATOR· / ·INTREPIDVS·   "Intrepid hunter"
Naked youth jumps on the back of a boar, which is grabbed by the ears by two dogs.
The young man is swinging a dagger. Below the signature: OPVS · PISANI · PICTORIS

Cast bronze medal n. d. by Pisanello (Antonio Pisano).     Ø 110 mm, 325 g.
Armand I 7/19; Hill Corpus 43; Kress 21; Pollard (2007) 23.
Specimen in the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Obv.:   DIVVS·ALPHONSVS·AR/AGONIAE·VTRIVSQ/VE·SICILIAE·VAL/ENCIAE·HIErosolimae // HVNgariae MAIOricarum SARdiniae CORsicae REX COmes BArcironae DVx AThenarum ET // NEOpatriae AC C - Omes ROsciglionis ET Ceritaniae   -   "The divine Alfonso, King of Aragon, Sicily, Valencia, Jerusalem, Hungary, Mallorca, Sardinia and Corsica, Count of Barcelona, Duke of Athens and Neopatria and Count of Roussillon and Cerdanya"   -   Bareheaded bust to the right, with chain mail and cloak, crown below.
"My strength and my song is the Lord, He saved me"   -   A winged genius on a triumphal chariot pulled to the right by two pairs of horses over stony ground. Behind are two pages.
The signature at the bottom
Antonio Pisano, known as Pisanello, made about twenty medals for the main characters of the Italian Renaissance courts. He was in Naples between 1449 and 1455 - presumably until his death - and during that time he created at least three medals (only the first of which is dated) for the Aragonese sovereign. Numerous preparatory drawings by him have also survived, including some portraits of Alfonso, which are the king's most important iconographic testimony.

Cast bronze medal ca.1450, attributed to Pisanello.     Ø 25 mm, 7,73 g.
Armand I 11/34; Hill Corpus 49a.     Specimen in The British Museum, London.


Cast bronze medal by Paolo da Ragusa (aktiv 1450).     Ø 48 mm.
Armand I 26/2; Hill Corpus 13/45c.     Specimen in The Metropolitan Museum, N.Y..


Cast bronze medal by Paolo da Ragusa (um 1450).     Ø 45 mm, 32.0 g.
Armand -; Hill Corpus 13/46; Pollard (2007) 42.   Specimen in the coin cabinet, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.


Touch the illustration with the cursor to see the obverse.
Cast bronze medal n. d. (1455?) by Cristoforo di Geremia.     Ø 74,7 mm.
Armand I 31/1; Hill Corpus 754; Kress 210; Currency of Fame 35. Pursuit of Immortality 22.
Specimen in the Scher Collection, shown in The Frick Collection, N.Y. in 2017

"König Alfonso, Kommandierer von Königen und Sieger in Kriegen"
Bust to the right, in Roman armor with a cloak, as if placed on a base, with a crown underneath. Breastplate with ornaments, Nereid riding a sea centaur and a Medusa head.

"Mars and Bellona crown the victor of the realm"
Winged Bellona and naked Mars crown Alfonso, who is enthroned in Roman imperial costume and holds a sword and a ball. Throne legs adorned with sphinxes.
Exergue: signature
Cristoforo di Geremia is mentioned as a medalist and sculptor in 1460 and it is said to have worked in 1468. The medal is believed to have been made around 1455 [Armand].
Compare the relief in marble (52x44 cm in the Louvre, Paris) created by Mino da Fiesole,
presented online by

E. Ranieri:   Le medaglie di Alfonso I   &   L'Alfonsino d'oro   &   I denari di Alfonso il Magnanimo
Stephen K. Scher (Ed.):  The Currency of Fame: Portrait Medals of the Renaissance, 1994
Aimee Ng :  Frick Exposition The Pursuit of Immortality: Masterpieces from the Scher Collection of Portrait
, 2017
Stefen K. Scher et al.: The Scher Collection of Commemorative Medals, 2019

Ferdinando I (Ferrante) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1458-1494
- son of Alfonso, founder of a branch line of the House of Aragón, which Ferdinand 'the Catholic'
from the main House of Aragón disempowered in 1503 -
Ferdinando (it.: Ferrante), born in 1424 as the illegitimate son of king Alfonso V of Aragón, was recognized by the Pope as legitimate. He was declared Duke of Calabria and heir to the throne in Naples in 1443. After the death of his father in 1458 he was able to drive out the pretender René von Anjou in 1464 with the support of Francesco Sforza. In 1478 Ferdinando supported Pope Sixtus IV against Lorenzo de Medici, who was able to make peace after personal negotiations in Naples. After Sultan Mehmed II had cruelly conquered Otranto in 1480, Ferdinando was able to recapture the city in 1481 after the Sultan's death.
Ferdinando strengthened the royal power and cultivated humanism and the Renaissance at his court. In 1463 he was elected Knight of the Order of the Garter and in 1473 as Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. When Ferdinando died in 1494 and his son Alfonso II succeeded him, Ludovico Sforza had already invited King Charles VIII of France to assert his claim to Naples.

Doppio ducato.    Ø 30 mm, 6,98 g.   CNI 86/5; PR 2; MIR 61; Friedb.818.
Crowned bust on the right, behind T (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster 1488-1514).
Rev.:   SERENITATI⦂AC⦂PACI⦂PERPETVE   "For perpetual serenity and peace"
Crowned and quartered coat of arms: Naples (Hungary, Anjou & Jerusalem) / Aragón.

Ducato (1458-62).    Ø 22 mm, 3,50 g.   CNI 87/14var; PR -; MIR -.
Obv.:   FERDINANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂S I V  "... King of Sicily, Jerusalem, Hungary"
Crowned arms Naples/Aragon (crown in the area of the legend).

Rev.:   +RE - CORDATVS⦂MISERICORDIaE⦂SVae   "in remembrance of his mercy" (Lucas I,54).
Crowned youthful bust to the right.

Ducato.    Ø 22 mm, 3,53 g.   CNI XIX 91/50; PR 9a; Friedb.819var.
Obv.:   FERDINANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂SI⦂IE:V   -   Arms Naples/Aragon.
Rev.:   RECORDAT⦂MISERICORDIE⦂S   -   head to the right, mintmark C (Cola Spinelli).

Ducato (1478-94).     Ø 22 mm, 3,48 g.   CNI -; PR -; MIR 64/7nota.
Similar as before, T (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster 1488-1514) auf C.
CNI distinguish between 119 variants (n.7-125) of this ducato d'oro.
The longest abbreviations result together:

Tari, testone o doppio carlino.    Ø 29 mm, 7,21 g.   CNI 128var; PR 10; MIR 65/1.
Obv.:   FERDINANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂S◦IE◦V◦   -   Crowned arms Naples/Aragon.
Rev.:   +RECORDATVS⦂MISERICORDIE⦂SVE⦂·   -   Crowned bust to the right.

Coronato (1462-72).     Ø 29 mm, 3,93 g.   CNI XIX 101/144; PR 12; MEC 958.
Obv.:   +FERDINANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R⦂SICI⦂IER◦VN⦂   -   Crutch cross, underneath mintmak ᙏ.
Rev.:   CO - RONATVS⦂Quia⦂LEGITIME⦂CERTA - Vit   "Crowned because he fought legally"
The king sits forward, between crowning Cardinal left and bishop right.
Although father Alfons had well prepared the acceptance of his illegitimate son Ferrante as his successor in Naples, Ferrante struggled to gain recognition as King of Naples. The Feudal lord Pope Kalixtus III did not want to invest him. Only successors Pius II was ready to do so and sent the Roman Cardinal Orsini to crown Ferrante on February 4th, 1459 in Bari. At the same time, some barons rose up to support the pretendent Johann von Anjou, son of the last Anjou king in Naples. They were decisively defeated in Troy in 1462 and the pretendent left the country in 1464.

Coronato (1472-88).     Ø 26 mm, 3,93 g.   CNI XIX 117/294; PR 13; MEC 973.
Obv.:   +FERDINANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R◦SICI⦂IER◦VN   -   Crutch cross.
Rev.:   CORONATVS◦QA◦LEGITIME⦂CERT⦂   -   Crowned bust rechts.

Coronato (1488-94).    Ø 27 mm, 3,91 g.   CNI 150/594; PN 17b; MEC 1006-7.
Obv.:  FERRANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R◦SICILIE⦂I  -  Bust right, sign T (Giancarlo Tramontano mintmaster).
Rev.:   ◦IVSTA◦T - VENDA   "The right things need to be defended"
The Archangel Michael, without a halo and with a shield, pierces the dragon with a lance,
three balls at the upper end of the lance.

Coronato (1488-94).    Ø 28 mm, 3,91 g.   CNI 156/640; PN 20; MEC p.367.
Obv.:   ·FERRANDVS:ARAGO:REX:SICIL:HIE   -   Bust to the right.
Rev.:   ·IVSTA· - TVENDA   -   Similar to before, dragons with devilish horns,
flag at the upper end of the lance.

Coronato main variants of the figure of the archangel on the reverse, presented by E. Ranieri.

Medaglia o quarto di carlino.     Cu   Ø 30 mm, 11,45 g.  CNI 174/807; PR -; MEC 374; MIR 79.
Obv.:   +CORONATVS·QVIA·LEGITIME:CERTAVIT   -   Crowned bust to the right in armor.
Rev.:   VICTOR·ET - TRIVMPHATOR   -   Victoria on quadriga to the right.

Multiplo di cavallo (1478-94).    AE   Ø 20 mm, 7,71 g.  CNI 180/861; PR 34; MEC -; MIR p.59.
Obv.:   ◦FERRANDVS◦◦◦◦REX◦◦   -   Crowned bust to the right. Below ◦◦◦.
Rev.:   ◦EQVITAS◦REGNI◦   -   Horse to the right under a rosette. Exergue: ◦*S*◦

Multiplo di cavallo.    AE   Ø 18 mm, 2,21 g.   CNI 182/877; PR -; MIR 83.
Obv.:   FERRANDVS⦂D⦂G⦂R◦SI   -   Crowned head to the right.
Rev.:   SICIL - VICTOR   -   Victoria in Quadriga to the right.

Cavallo (1472-88).     AE   Ø 17 mm, 2,00 g.   CNI XIX 184/896; PR 39.
Obv.:   FERDINAN - DVS◦REX   -   Crowned head to the right.
Rev.:   ◦EQVITAS+◦ - ◦REX◦REGNI◦   -   Horse to the right.

Mezzo carlino, Reggio Calabria.   AE  Ø 23 mm, 1,64 g.  CNI XVIII 296/1var; MEC 367; MIR 73.
King enthroned from the front, with scepter and orb, lion heads at the sides.
Rev.:   +IVSTICIA◦E◦FORTITVDO◦MEA◦  "My righteousness and strength"
Quartered arms: Aragon-pales / Cross of Jerusalem.

Look at Marble bust of Ferdinando I in Museo di Capodimonte, Naples.

E. Ranieri:   Coronato dell'Angelo

Alfonso II d' Aragona, King of Naples 1494-1495
Alfonso, born 1448, succeeded his father Ferdinando I d 'Aragona as King of Naples in 1494. When King Charles VIII of France and his troops reached Rome, Alfonso abdicated in January 1495 in favor of his son Ferrandino, fled to Sicily, where he retired to a monastery in Messina and died shortly afterwards.

Cast bronze medal 1481 by Andrea Guacialoti.     Ø 61 mm, 75,7 g.
Hill Corpus 745d.   Specimen in The British Museum, London.

Obv.:   ALFONSVS·FERDI - DVX·CALABRIE   "Alfonso Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria"
Bust of Alfonso, facing three quarters to the left, with long hair. He is wearing a conical cap with edge turned up all round and small plume at the side, and plate-armour over gorget of mail; incised near the forward edge of the left shoulder plate, an armourer's mark crowned.

Rev.:   NEAPOLIS VICTRIX   -   Triumphal entry of Alfonso into Otranto. He rides to the front, seated on a high car, drawn by two horses, he holds a lance in his left hand and gesticulates with his right hand. Preceeding him, and moving to the left, procession of horseman and foot-soldiers, varrying horseman's hammers and banners, and trumpeters, driving before them Turkish prisoners, with hands bound behind their backs. Through a gate are seen fortifications, buildings in flames, a lion's head fountain, and fore-part of a wolf rising out of the water. In the background, tall hills capped with buildings.
After Sultan Mehmed II had cruelly conquered Otranto in 1480, Alfonso's father Ferdinando I was able to regain the city in 1481 and enable the 33-year-old Alfonso to triumphantly move in.

Ducato.     Ø 23 mm, 3,51 g.   CNI XIX 211/3; PR 1; MIR 87; Friedb.820.
Crowned and quartered arms Neapel (Hungary, Anjou & Jerusalem) / Aragón.
Rev.:   RECORDATus:MISERICOrdiae:Suae   "In remembrance of his mercy" (Lucas I,54)
Crowned bust to the right, T (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster).

Ducato.     Ø 22 mm, 3,50 g.   CNI XIX 212/10var; PR 2a; Friedb.820a.
Obv.:   +ALFONSVS·II·D.G·R·SICILIE:IER   -   Quartered shield: Naples/Aragon.
Rev.:   IN:DEXTERA·TVA·SALVS:Mea·Domini·   "Save me with thy right hand" (Ps.107.7)
Crowned bust to the right, T (Giancarlo Tramontano, mintmaster).

Coronato.    Ø 28 mm, 3,96 g.   CNI XIX 213/16; PR 3a var; MIR 89/1.
Archangel Michael with lance, shield and dragon. Mintmaster's mark T in the field.
Rev.:   CORONAVITZ·VNXIT:ME:MANVS:TVA·D:   = coronavit et unxit me manus tua domine
"A crown and put it on my hand, O Lord."   -   Alfonso crowned by cardinal (left) and bishop.

Mezzo carlino.    Ø 22 mm, 1,72 g.   CNI XIX 221/91var; PR 4var; MEC 1035var; MIT 90/1.
Obv.:   ALFONSVS:II:R·SICI   -   Crowned and quarteres shield Naples/Aragon.
Rev.:   SVB:DEXTERA·····TVA·SALVS:Mea·Domini
King enthroned to the front with crown, scepter and orb.

Compare the bronze bust made by Guido Mazzoni, 42 cm high, in the Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, shown in In the 19th century this bust was held as that of Ferrante I.

E. Ranieri:   Il Coronato di Alfonso II

Part 2 (separate page)
King Charles VIII of France, also in Naples 1495
Ferdinando II (Ferrantino) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1495-1496
Federico III (I) d' Aragona, King of Naples 1496-1501
King Louis XII of France, also in Naples 1501-1503
Ferdinando and Isabella the Catholics, also in Naples 1503-1504
Ferdinando the Catholic alone, also in Naples 1504-1516

• Corpus Nummorum Italicorum [CNI], vol. XIX - CNI-Indici vol.XIX
• Pannuti / Riccio [PR]: Le monete di Napoli, Lugano 1984
• Biaggi / Elio: Monete e Zecche Medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV, Turin 1992
• Grierson / Travaini [MEC]: Medieval European Coinage, vol.14: Italy III, Cambridge 1998
• Fabrizi, D. [MIR]: Monete Italiane Regionali, vol.8: Napoli, Edizioni Numismatica Varesi 2010
• Archivio della categoria: Numismatica
• Regno di Napoli

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