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      Personalities of the time      

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (1517-86)
Bishop of Arras in 1538, most trusted advisor of Charles V in 1550,
archbishop of Mechelen in 1560-82, Cardinal in 1561
and archbishop of Besançon in 1584
His father Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle (1484-1550), was a lawyer at the court in Dôle (Burgundy). He was sent to the Netherlands in 1519, and to the spanish Court for diplomatic misions in 1525. After the death of Mercurino Gattinara in 1530, Nicolas became one of the emperor's most trusted advisers. He died before the beginning of the diet in Augsburg, 1550.
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (*1517 Besançon, †1586 Madrid) studied theology and law. 23 years old he was nominated bishop of Arras. He was ordained into the priesthood in 1540. He became a close associate of his father Nicolas Perrenot. In 1547 he was involved in the negotiations of Schmalkaldic's League surrender. In 1550 he followed his father as the highest advisor of Charles V and retained this position under King Philip II of Spain. Antoine became Archbishop of Mechelen in 1560 and Cardinal in 1561. Antoine was the most influential minister of Regent Margaret of Parma when he had to leave Spanish Nederlands in 1564, because the conflict with the Dutch 'nobility opposition' (Counts of Hoorn, Egmond and William I of Orange) escalated. After that he worked as Chief Minister of Philip II in Rome and Madrid. He died before retiring to his new task as Archbishop of Besançon.
In addition to his busy political career, he was engaged as an art lover and collector, including coins and medals. He ordered around 30 different medals with his portrait.

Medal on father Nicolas

Cast silver medal 1533 by Jean Second.     Ø 63 mm, in the Coin Cabinet KHM, Vienna.
picture from 'Kaiser Karl V., Macht und Ohnmacht Europas', exhibition catalog (2000), p.165, no.85"

Obv.:   NICOLaus PERRNOTVS - SIC VISVM SVPERIS   "..., so it seemed properly to the gods"
Bust to the right, with cap and fur coat. In the truncation:
AETatis·XLVII   "age of 47"
Rev.:   God father scatters the clouds. In the exergue: SATIABOR CVm / APPARV / ERIT gloria tua
"I will be satisfied when your glory will appear" (Ps.16,15).

Medals on son Antoine

Bronze cast medal 1541 by Matthes Gebel.     Ø 57 mm.
Luc Smolderen 1; Bernhart 1; the piece belongs to the museum in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Rev.   Coat of arms placed on a crosier under an episcopal hat with tassels, surrounded by a wide wreath.
This is the earliest medal on Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle.

Uniface bronze cast medal 1548 by Joachim Deschler.     Ø 47-48 mm.
LS 3 [Ø 48 mm]; Bernhart 2; Habicht I,2, 1578; Paris [bronze 47 mm]; Munich [lead 48 mm].

In the arm truncation I548 elevated, also engraved DJ as monogram.

Antoine ordered several medals at the Habsburg court artists Leone Leoni and
Jacques Jonghelinck from about 1555 on. They carry always Antoine's effigy.

Uniface bronze cast medal n. d. (c. 1555) by Leone Leoni.     Ø 66 mm, 70,20 g.
LS 5 [Ø 66 mm]; Bernhart 5; van Loon I p.48 3; Armand I p.166 19 (Obv.)

·ANTonius·PERRENOT·EPIscopus·ATREBATENsis·   "... bishop of Arras (Dutch Atrecht)"
Bust in cassock with goatee to the left.
This medal actually has the same revers as next medal.

Silver medal (c. 1555), by Leone Leoni.     Ø 65 mm.
LS 6 [Ø 65 mm]; Bernhart 6; Attwood 33; Armand I, p.166 19; Middeldorf/Stiebral LV, this piece.

Obv.:   ·ANTonius·PERRENOT·EPIscopus·ATREBATENsis·   "... bishop of Arras (dutch: Atrecht)"
Bust in the priest's robe; incised on truncation: LEO.

Rev.:   Ship from Aeneas in a storm with winds, lightnings and hail stones raining down from above.
In the foreground a man is rowing in a boat.
On a banner below: DVRATE = Endure, carry on.
In the ancient mythology handed down by Virgil, Aeneas escapes from Troy and becomes progenitor of Rome.
The word DURATE is part of Aenea's exhortation to his men: "Durate et vosmet rebus servate secundis" (Carry on, and preserve yourself for better times), Aeneid, I, Vers 207).   [Scher, p.352]
Granvelle's fight against the heresy of Protestants is illustrated with Aenea's adversities.

Cast bronze Medaille n. d. (c. 1555), unsigned.     Ø 90,5 mm, 150,36 g.
probably by Leone Leoni; also Jacopo da Trezzo could be the medalist.
LS 7 [ca.1555, Ø 95mm]; Bernh.7; v.Loon I p.48 fig.1 (1560); Armand II p.255 34; Attwood 31; Börner 756.

Obv.:   ·AN - TON·PERRENOT·EPI·ATREBATEN  -  effigy to the left with crozier in his right hand.
Rev.:   CAETERIS·AEQVE·AC·SIBI·   "For others as for him"   -   The earthly paradise:
Unicorn at a spring in mountainous landscape, around elephant, bear, deer and other animals.
The illustration on the reverse refers Granvelle's ambition to clean the Christian church from "Protestant contamination" (Attwood, p.103).

Silver medal n. d. (1555) by Leone Leoni.     Ø 50 mm, 33,15 g.
LS 8 [Ø 51 mm]; Bernhart 3 [Munich, 51 mm]; van Loon I p.48 fig.3; Armand II p.255 36.

Obv.:   ANTONII PERRENOT·EPI ATREBAT   -   Bareheaded bust to the left.
Rev.:   DVRATE   -   The ship of Aeneas tries to escape Scylla (see monster with female upper body).
Neptune (Poseidon) threatens the monster with his trident to calm the storm.
In the foreground shipwrecked people and a Triton with a double trumpet.
Now: Neptun and Triton with double trumpet.   Later (Jonghelinck, 1561): Neptun and two seahorses.

Silver medal n. d. (ca.1555) by Jacques Jonghelinck     Ø 38,5 mm, 20,07 g.
LS 9; Bernhart 10 [Munich, 42 mm]; van Loon I p.48, fig.4.

Obv.:   ANTONII·PERRENOT·EPI·ATREBAT·  -  bust left.
Rev.:   DVRATE  -  Coat of Arms of Cardinal Granvelle between cardinal's hat and tassels.

Cast bronze medal n. d. (c. 1555) unsigned, by J. Jonghelinck.     Ø 78,6 mm.
LS 11 [79 mm]; Bernhart -; Armand II p.255 35; Attwood -; Börner -; Smolderen 22.

Obv.:   ·ANTONIVS PERRENOTVS EPISCopus·ATREBATENSIS:   -   bust to the left.
Rev.:   Ship with several men, tied in part to the mast, at the right three satyrs
with instruments on a rock, at the bottom on a banner DVRATE.

Cast bronze medal n. d. (c. 1555) by Leone Leoni or J. Jonghelinck    Ø 61,5 mm, 60,5 g.
LS 12 [61 mm]; Bernhart 5; v. Loon I p.48 fig.2var; Köhler Belust. vol.4, piece 22, p.169.

Obv.:  ANTONius PERRENOT - EPISCopus ATREBATENsis  -  effigy right in coat.
Rev.:   DVRATE   "Carry on"   -   Triton (Greek sea god with human torso and fishy lower body) beats
with his oar the stormy sea. In the foreground, dog-like marine monsters are biting up a shipwrecked man.
In the background right a manned ship in front of rocks, in the sky two winds.

1560/61: Antoine becomes Archbishop and Cardinal
The King appointed him archbishop of Mechelen in 1560 and the Pope raised him to cardinal in 1561.

Silver medal (1561) by J. Jonghelinck.     Ø 56 mm, 32,36 g.
LS 19 [56 mm]; Bernhart 14; v. Loon I p.59 fig.1; Armand II p.255 38; Smolderen 33.

Obv.:   ANTonius PERRENOT Sacræ Romanæ Ecclesiæ PresBiteR CARDinalis ARCHIEPIscopus MECHLiniensis
"Antonius Perrenot, Priest of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechelen"
effigy with cap and coat, engraved date 1561 on the arm section.

Rev.:   DVRATE  -  The sailing ship steered by Aeneas (stands for Granvelle) threatens to capsize
while Neptune (for Kg. Philipp?) comes to help in his chariot drawn by seahorses.
Model is a unique piece by Jonghelinck, Ø 59 mm [Scher Nr.159, LS 17] from Rijksmuseum Leiden.
Here: Neptune accompanied by two seahorses. Earlier (Leoni, 1555): Neptune and Triton with double trumpet.

Uniface cast n. d. (1567)   by Jacques Jonghelinck from a wax model by Domenico Compagni.
Ø 74 mm.     LS 22 [75 mm]; Bernhart 18; Kress 631 (this piece);
v. Loon I p.57; Armand I p.170 37 (under Leone Leoni).


Silver cast medal n.d. (1571) unsigned, model by Giovanni Melon.     Ø 40,67 mm; 29,65 g.
on the wish to win over the Turkish fleet in the Mediterranean by Cardinal Antonius Perrenot of Granvella.
LS 24; Bernhart 21; v. Loon I p.138 1; Armand I p.265, 12; Attwood 985 & Börner 943 (both bronze & signed).

Obv.:   ANT·S·R·E·PBR·CARD·GRANVELANVS arabesque  -  bust to the left.
Rev.:   Below the line IN HOC VINCES ("you will win with this") the enthroned cardinal hands over a banner to the kneeling Don Juan d'Austria; soldiers in the background.
A variant carries the bust right (Bernhart 22) and the signature IO·V·MELON·F· at the bust truncation.
As head of the Spanish delegation during negotiations at Rome, Antoine made Don Juan d'Austria to be the leader of the Alliance fleet, which later destroyed the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Lepanto.

Silver medal n. d. (c. 1572) by Giovanni Melon.     Ø 42,8 mm, 26,18 g.
LS 28 [43 mm]; Bernhart 24; v. Loon I, p.58, 2; Armand I p.265, 13; Kress 635.

Obv.:   ANT·S·R·E·PBR·CARD·GRANVELANVS arabesque  - 
bust to left, wearing cape with hood. Incised on the truncation IOannes Melon Fecit
Rev.:   DVRATE  -  A ship at sea, blown upon by winds.
This would appear to be among the latest of the medallic portraits of the Cardinal. [Kress]

• Luc Smolderen [LS] :  Les médailles de Granvelle, K. de Jonge, G. Janssens (ed.),
    Les Granvelle et le anciens Pays-Bas, Louvain 2000, p.293-320.
• Max Bernhart :  Die Granvella-Medaillen des XVI. Jahrhunderts. Archiv für Medaillen- und
    Plakettenkunde, Bd.2-3 (1920) p.101-120 & pl. IV-VII.
• G. van Loon :  Beschryving der Nederlandsche Historipenningen.   part 1, Den Haag 1723, online.
• A. Armand :  Les Médailleurs Italiens des quinzième et seizième siècles. 3 vol., Paris 1883-87, online.
• Luc Smolderen :  La Médaille en Belgique des origines à nos jours, Wetteren, 2009, 294 S., 490 Abb.
• Victor Tourneur :  Le Médailleur Jacques Jongheling et le cardinal Granvelle 1564-1578. Rev. Belge
    de Numismatique 87(1927)79-93, online
• Scher, Stephen K. (Ed.):  The Currency of Fame - Portrait Medals of the Renaissance, 1994.
• Hill/Pollard [Kress]:  Renaissance Medals from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, complete Catalogue, 1967.

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