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    Maternal grandparents    

Ferdinand and Isabel, the Catholics (Reyes Católicos)
Ferdinand, born 1452, since 1468 King of Sicily, married Isabel, who became Queen of Castile in 1474. In 1479 Ferdinand became King of Aragón. In 1503 he obtained Naples and in 1512 he conquered Navarra. Since 1479 Ferdinand and Isabel ruled the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragón jointly. They unified Spain by strengthening the central power. They supported Columbus's expedition to America and terminated the 400-year-old "Reconquista" by conquering Granada. Pope Alexander VI awarded them the title "Catholic Kings". Isabel died in 1504 and her daughter Joanna, later "the Mad", became queen of Castile. Ferdinand died in 1516 and his grandson Charles became King Carlos I of Spain.

Castile-León and Aragón were independent countries so that after unification in 1479 their currencies had to be adjusted. Ferdinand introduced the Venetian type of the ducat (3,5g gold) in 1483.
In 1497 the monetary reform "Real pragmática de Medina del Campo" was implemented in Castile: Only seven mints remained operating (Burgos, Cuenca, Granada, Sevilla, Toledo, Coruña, Segovia). No seigniorage was intended. For the first time, mintmarks and an assayer's marks on coins were prescribed. The Real in silver (3,24g) and the Excelente in gold (3,5g) as well as their multiples and partitions were introduced. The mintage of the renowned thaler-like 8-Reales-pieces (~27g) began later but perfectly fitted into this monetary system. They were used for trade throughout the world for several centuries.

Effigies of the royal couple on coins from Castile
Always the king at the left and the queen at the right.

Doble Castellano n. d. (1475-97), Sevilla.     Ø 34 mm, 9.18 g.   Cayón 2757; Friedb.147.
Obv.:   FᗺRnAnDVS:ᗺԾ+ᗺILISABᗺԾh܀DᗺI:GRAᗭIA-RᗺX:ᗺԾ Rᗺgina   in gothic letters (Ծ=T).
Crowned King and Queen sitting on a throne and holding sword and sceptre.

Rev.:   SVB:VnBRA:ALARVn܀ԾVARVn+PROԾᗺGᗺ×nOS+   in gothic letters.
"sub umbra alarum tuarum protege nos" = "In the shadow of the wings take us under your protection"
Arms of Castile-León and Aragón-Sicily side by side under a shared crown,
in the background the haloed eagle of the evangelist John, on its tail the mintmark S for Sevilla.

Castellano n. d. (1475-97), Burgos.     Ø 27 mm, ~ 4,6 g.   Cayón -.
Obv.:   ✠ᗭhOS:DᗺVS:COnSVnSIT:OᙏO:nOn:S
in gothic letters for: "quod Deus coniunxit homo non separet"
"Those who were copulated by God shall not be separated by man"
Crowned busts of Ferdinand and Isabel, face to face.
The eyecatching central dot between the faces is not a mintmark!
You can also find a central dot on the reverse if you look closely.

Rev.:   F - ᗺRnAnDVS:ᗺT:ᗺLISABᗺT - Dᗺi Gratia
Arms of Castile and León with mintmark B for Burgos under a crown.
Husband Ferdinand appears as co-regent of Castile. His arms are missing on the revers.

The gold Castellano weighing 4,6 g had been introduced in Castile by Enrique IV. It was minted since 1475 and showed the busts of the catholic Kings facing each other. The coin was highly valued and therefore called "excelente". In Barcelona and Valencia, however, the gold ducat of 3,5g was introduced in 1483. A coinage act was passed in 1497 in order to unify gold coin standards within Spain and the Excelente of 3,5 g and 23,75 carat replaced the Castellano in Castile.

Doble excelente (after 1497), Toledo.     Ø 28 mm, 7,01 g.   C.C.T.77 (type 74); Friedb.130.

Doble excelente (post. 1497), Sevilla.     Ø 28 mm, 6,8 g.   Cayón 2783.
Ferdinand and Isabel, crowned and face to face.     Star and "S" are mintmarks.
"sub umbra alarum tuarum protege nos" = "In the shadow of the wings take us under your protection"
haloed eagle of the evangelist John behind the crowned arms
here the eagle does not hold the arms in its claws, as on other doble excelentes
arms :   Castile - León | Aragón - Sicily ,   below: Granada (pomegranate)
Aragón: vertical stripes.     Sicily: two eagles and stripes separated by diagonals.

Excelente (1479-1504), Sevilla.     Ø 22 mm, 3,44 g.   Friedb.136.
Obv.:   +S(=Q)VOS·DᗺVS:ᗭOnIVnGIT:hOᙏO:nOn:Separet:   -   Crowned busts face to face.
Rev.:   :FERnAnDVS:ᗺT:hᗺLISABᗺ   -   Crowned quartered arms (without eagle). Mintmark S*.
The well-known image of the royal couple facing each other and the united coats of arms on the reverse indicated the firm intention to unite the kingdoms of Castile and Aragón. Special coinages of values up to 50 excelentes were equally programmatic. The image of the obverse became very popular and was copied by other royal couples: by Philip II & Mary Tudor (shilling 1554), by Francis II & Maria Stuart and by Albert & Isabel, governors of the Spanish Netherlands.

Compare the wedding portrait of Ferdinand and Isabella of 1469 [at the Palacio del Convento de las MM. Agustinas, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Spain] with a choice of facing busts on their undated gold coins from Castile. The busts on the coins are no longer dimly, as in the Middle Ages. The engraver tried for an individual representation, but did not achieve recognizability.

Effigy of the royal couple on coins issued in Ferdinands territory

Ducat n. d., Valencia.     Ø 23 mm, 3,48 g.   C./C./T.135 ; Friedb.82.
Obv. with crown (mintmark for Valencia) between the effegies and S|S in the exergue (assayer's mark).
Rev.: arms as before, here without the evangelist John's eagle.

Ducato n. d. (1503-04), Naples.    Ø 22,5 mm, 3,48 g.   CNI 6; Pannuti Riccio 1; Friedb.827.
"Those who were copulated by God shall nobody separate"
Crowned shield with the arms of Castile|León, Naples (Aragón|Jerusalem|Hungary),
Aragon|Sicily and Granada.   Mintmaster's mark I-T (Giancarlo Tramontano).
This undated coin was minted after the conquest of Naples (1503) and before Isabella died (1504).

Carlino n. d. (1503-4), Naples.     Ø 22 mm, 3,50 g.   Pannuti-Riccio 2.
Obv.:   ✠FERNANDVS◦ET◦HELISABET⦂D⦂G⦂   -   bust of Ferdinand
behind: T (sign of mintmaster Giancarlo Tramontano)

Rev.:   ✠REGES◦ISPANIE ET◦VTRIVSQVE◦SICiliae   -   bust of Isabel
utriusque Siciliae = "both Sicilies" (Naples and Sicily)
The title "Spanish King and Queen" (Reges Hispanie) appears for the first time.

Carlino n. d. (1503-04), Naples.    Ø 25 mm, 3,59 g.   Pannuti Riccio 4.
bust of Ferdinand,   at the back: G (sign from mint master Marcello Gazzella)
Rev.:   +Rex:ARAGONVM:Et - (pomegranate) - VTRIVSQue◦SIciliae:Et
The uncrowned quartered coat of arms fills the round field.
Ferdinand was king of Castile up to 1504 (Isabella's death) and king of "both Sicilies" since 1503
(conquest of Naples). The legends mention queen Isabella and "both Sicilies",
revealing 1503-04 as the period of emission.

The quartered coat of arms on this and on the next coin:
top left and bottom right: Castile (castle) | León (lion).
top right: Naples (Aragón|Jerusalem{crutch cross}|Hungary).
bottom left: Aragón and Sicily.
at the very bottom: Granada (pomegranate with two leaves).

Ferdinand's effigy alone on coins of his territory

Kingdom of Naples

Ducato n. d., Naples.     Ø 22 mm, 3,53 g.   Pannuti Riccio 2c; MIR 117/4; Friedb.828.
Obv.:   +FERNANDVS◦ - D◦G◦R◦AR◦V◦SI   -   crowned bust to the right.
Rev.:   FERNANDVS◦D◦G◦Rex◦ARagon◦Vtriusque◦SIciliae
Crowned arms between I - T (Gian Carlo Tramontano, mintmaster 1488-1514).

Kingdom of Sicily

Doppio trionfo n. d. (1503-04), Messina.    Ø 28 mm, 6,99 g.  Spahr 211; MIR 235.
Obv.:   ✠FERDINANDVS:D:G:Rex:Castelia:Aragonum:   -   crowned bust to the left.
crowned eagle between I - N (Giovanni Nobile, mintmaster 1503-25).
Only in the period 1503-04 between the conquest of Naples (1503) and the death of Isabella (1504) Ferdinand was still king of Castile and already ruler of the "Two Sicilies", as displayed in the legend.

Trionfo n. d., Messina (Sicily).    Ø 23 mm, 3,54 g.  Spahr 34; MIR 237/5; Friedb.659.

Doppio tari, Messina.     Ø ?? mm, 5,57 g.   Spahr 218A; MEC 14; MIR 243; Crusafont 877.
Obv.:   +:FERDIN - ANDVS:DEI:GRACIA     crowned bust left.
Rev.:   +REX:CATHOLICVS:HISp:V:SICILI     crowned eagle between I - N.

Tari, Messina.     Ø 22? mm, 3,10 g.   Spahr 174var; MEC 14, p.330; MIR 246.

Tari, Messina.     Ø 22? mm, 3,00 g.   Spahr 223/242; MIR 249.

Kingdom of Sardinia

Reale n. d., Cagliari (Sardinia).     Ø 25 mm, 3,03 g.   CNI 1var pl.42,1; Piras 22; MIR 17.
Vs.:   +FᗺRDInAnDVS·D·G RᗺX·ARAgoniae·SAdiniae·
"Seine Feinde will ich mit Schanden kleiden" (Psalm 132,18)

Aragonese territories in Spain

Principat (ducat) n. d. (before 1504), Barcelona.     Ø 22 mm, 3,49 g.   Friedb.32.
Obv.: FERDINANDVS:D:G:REX:   -   lion in a small shield behind the crowed bust.
This nice effigy was modelled on a Renaissance coin: Naples, Ferdinand I, 1458-94, ducat.

Rev.:   CASTELLE:ARAgon:COME:Barcelona   -   crowned arms: Castile-León | Aragón-Sicily.
The coin was issued before Isabella's death (1504) when Ferdinand also was King of Castile.
The county of Barcelona mentioned in the legend tried to retain its independency, until today.

1/2 Principat n. d., Barcelona.     Ø 17 mm, 1,74 g.   Cru.V.S.1132; Cru.C.G.3064.
Obv.:   FERDInAnDVS·D·G·REX   -   Crowned head to the right.
Rev.:   CASTELLE·ARA·CO·BA   -   Crowned coat of arms of Aragón.

Croat n. d., Barcelona.     Ø 24 mm, 3,22 g.   Crusafont 1137.4.
Obv.:   FᗺRDInAnDUS:D:G:X   -   crowned head left.
Rev.:   CIVI - ԾAS B - AᗭIn - OnAԾ   -   Long cross, rings and three bullets in the angles.

1/2 Croat n. d., Barcelona.     Ø 17 mm, 1,31 g.   Crusafont 3079.
Obv.:   FᗺRDInAnDUS·D·G·RᗺX   -   crowned head left.
Rev.:   CIVI - ԾASB - ARᗭh - nOnA   -   Long cross, rings and three bullets in the angles.

1/4 Croat n. d., Barcelona.     Ø c.13 mm, 0,82 g.   Cayón 2261.
B behind the head   //   BAR - CA - nO - nA

Ducato n. d., Mallorca.     Ø 22 mm, 3,50 g.   Crusafont 1137.4.

Double ducat n. d., Valencia.     Ø 26 mm, ca.6,9 g.   CA-30; Friedb.85.
Obv.:   ✠FᗺERDInAnDVS:DᗺI:GRATIA:RᗺX◦   -   crowned bust between half arches.
Rev.:   ✠◦VALᗺnCIᗺ:ᙏAIO [small lion coat of arms] RICARVᙏ:SᗺRD'◦  -  Crowned arms of Valencia.
Legend over both sides: "Ferdinand by God's grace king of Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia"

Ducat n. d. (after 1504), Valencia.     Ø 22 mm, 3,44 g.   Friedb.86.
Obv.:   ✠ FERDINANDVSᕁDEI GRACIAᕁ   -  crowned bust to the left.
Rev.:  ✠VALENCIEᕁMA [shield with lion] IORICARVMᕁSE(a)rdinia  -  crowned arms of Valencia.
The Kingdom of Valencia, though a part of Aragón, coined in its own name and used its own shield.
Compare the Valencian double ducat of Charles V.

Compare with a later painting [Late 15th / early 16th century, 28x22 cm, KHM, Viena].

Doble real de oro n. d. (after 1512), Navarra.     Ø 28 mm, 7,00 g.
Obv.:   FᗺRnAnDVS⦂D⦂G:Rex⦂NAVArra   -   crowned bust.
Rev.:   SIT⦂nOᙏᗺn DOᙏINI⦂Bᗺnedictum   "The name of the Lord be praised"
crowned arms of Navarra.
After the death of his wife Isabella in 1504 Ferdinand came into conflict with his son-in-law Philip I the Handsome. Therefore, Ferdinand married in 1506 the French princess Germaine de Foix, in oder to protect his Aragonese possessions from Habsburg heirs. Germaine's father had claimed Navarra without succes. Ferdinand now repeated the claim, annexed the largest part of it and took the title King of Navarre.
The couple's son was to inherit Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia from the father. However, because he died early, the historic union of Castile and Aragon was preserved.

Ducat n. d., Perpignan.     Ø 22 mm, 3,42 g.   C./C./T.40; Friedb.32.
crowned bust to the right, crescent moon   //   crowned arms, between P - P (Perpignan).
Roussillon with its capital Perpignan war a Catalan County on the northeast edge of
the Pyrenees up to 1659 and belonged to the Crown of Aragon since 1172.

10 Ducats n. d., Zaragoza.     Ø 36 mm, 36,60 g.  
Obv.:  FᗺRDInAnDVS:R:DᗺI:GRACIA:ARAGOn:VAlencia   - in gothic script
crowned bust between C-A (mintmark for Zaragoza).

"Triumphator and Catholic Christian",
crowned arms of Aragón between L - S (ensayador Luis Sánchez).
Zaragoza is the Capital of Ferdinands homeland, the Kingdom of Aragón.

1/2 Real n. d., Aragón.     Ø c.21 mm.   CA-138.
+FᗺRDInAnDVS: DᗺI:GR:R.   //   ARAGOnVM:ET.CASԾᗺL:   (Ծ = T)

Dinero n. d., Aragón.     Ø c.15 mm, 0,70 g.   Cru.V.S. 1308 var; Cru.C.G. 3208d.
+⦂F⦂DᗺI⦂ - ⦂G⦂RᗺX⦂   //   +ARAGOnVᙏ⦂VALᗺ◦⦂

Crusafont I Sabater, M.: Numismatica de la Corona Catalano-Aragonesa medieval 785-1516, Madrid 1982
Cru.C.G: Catàleg general de la moneda catalana, Barcelona 2009, auf Catalan
Cru.V.S: Acuñaciones de la Corona Catalano-Aragonesa y de los Reinos de Aragon y Navarra: Medioevo y tránsito a la Edad Moderna (Catalogo general de las monedas Españolas, vol.IV), Madrid 1992
Cayon-Castan: Las Monedas españolas desde los reyes Visigodos año 406 a Juan Carlos I, Madrid 1983
Idem.: Las Monedas españolas desde los reyes Catolicos año 1474 ..., Madrid 1974, numeración obsoleta !
Calicó y Trigo (C./C./T.) : Numismatica Española: catálogo de todas las monedas emitidas desde los Reyes Catolicos a Juan Carlos I, 1474-1998, Barcelona, ed. 1998
Numismática Española, Catálogo de todas las monedas emitidas desde los Reyes Católicos hasta Felipe VI. 1474 a 2019, editor: Áureo & Calicó, Barcelona 2019

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