Kingdom of Spain
Charles first came to Spain in 1517 to become King Carlos I of Spain, after his grandfather Ferdinand the Catholic had died. Charles arrived as a foreigner, but he tried hard to integrate and he soon learned to speak Spanish. The behaviour of his Burgundian advisers, however, provoked the "comuneros"-revolt of the Spanish cities. Charles was wise enough to appoint Spanish advisors during his second stay in Spain (1522-29). Charles relied on Spain as an indispensable source to finance and manpower his European wars.
Charles introduced the pillars of Hercules, symbolizing the Strait of Gibraltar, together with his motto "Plus Ultra" ("always forward, even further").
Crowned pillars standing in water4 reales from Mexico
Charles issued most of the Spanish coinage either in the name of his Spanish grandparents or in his own name and that of his mother Joanna. Charles was governor in her place as Joanna was mentally handicapped. She died two years before Charles's abdication. This is why Charles's effigy is not found on coins from Castile or from overseas.
Coins minted in countries which Charles had inherited form his grandfather Ferdinand the Catholic are either imprinted with Charles's title or with both his and his mother's title. Occasionally, coins form Valencia and Mallorca also show Charles's bust.
Doble ducado (double ducat), n. d., Valencia. Ø 28mm 7,0g
Obv.: +CAROLVS·DEI·GRACIA·REX·ARAGO - crowned bust surrounded by gothic ornament.
Rev.: +VALENCIE·MAI - ORICARVM·SA - crowned arms of Valencia surrounded by ornament.
Compare the Valencian ducat, n.d. (after 1504) of Ferdinand the Catholic with similar bust.
Doble ducado (double ducat), n. d. (before 1539), Valencia. Ø 27 mm, 6,98 g. unique
Obv.: +CAROLVS·DEI·GRACIA·RE· - crowned bust without gothic ornament.
A restrike displaced RE in the upper left onto the X of REX and opened the inner circle to a spiral.
Also the front prong of the crown was lost (flattened) by the restrike.
Note the strange disturbing dot in the emperor's eye in the center of the coin.
This lamentable central dot is not part of the designed picture !
Rev.: +VALENCIE·MAIORICARVM· - crowned arms of Valencia without side-ornaments.
Doble real, n. d., Valencia. Ø 28 mm. Cy.3218.
Obv.: +CAROLVS·DEI·GRACIA·REX - crowned bust en face.
This medieval effigy was used in Valencia from the 14th to the 17th century.
Rev.: +VALINCIA·M (shield with lion) AIORICA·RV - crowned arms of Valencia.
Ducado n. d., Palma de Mallorca. Ø 21 mm, 3,36 g. Cayón 3241; Calicó/Trigo 35; Friedb.54.
Obv.: +CAROLVS·REX·ARAGONVM· - crowned bust between two stars.
Rev.: MAIORICARV3 (arms) CATOLICVS - shield: Castile|León, Aragón|Sicily and Granada.
Ducado n. d., Palma de Mallorca. Ø 21 mm, 3,47 g. C.C.T. 33; Friedb.54.
Obs.: +CAROLVS·REX·ARAGONVM (G & N mirror image) - crowned bust to the left.
Rev.: MAIORICA (mm.) CATOLICVS - Wappen wie vor.
Doble ducado (double ducat), n. d., Zaragoza. Ø 26 mm. Friedb.22.
Obv.: + IOANA:ET:KARLOS:D:GRACIA:RA:BAR - Legend in gothic letters (die from about 1520).
Crowned busts of Joanna and Charles facing each other, between them: C (mint Zaragosa).
Rev.: + IOANA:ET KAROLVS:RXS:ARAGON. - Legend in Latin antiqua letters (die after 1525),
crowned arms of Aragón between L - S (mint master Luis Sánchez de Calatayud).
2 Principats (double ducat), 1521, Barcelona. Ø 28 mm, 6,9 g. Cayón 1459; Friedb.35.
Obv.: +IOANA ET CARLOLVS REGES ARAGONVM
Crowned busts of Charles and Joanna, between them a scepter,
above them a firesteel on a St. Andrew's Cross, unusual symbol in Spain.
Rev.: COMITES BARCINONE·P·V·1521 "Earls of Barcelona"
Crown in the legend above the divided arms of Aragón and Naples (Jerusalem|Hungary|Sicily).
The arms of pretension of Jerusalem originate with Charles I of Anjou, King of Naples 1266-1285.
Compare the double ducat 1521 from Barcelona of the coin cabinet of the Bode-Museum in Berlin.
The Bibliothèque nationale de France, Dép. des Monnaies, is in possession of an unique show piece:
100 ducats 1528, Zaragoza LS (Ø 84 mm, 349,32 g).