Contemporaries in the Holy Roman Empire
Wittelsbach Dukes in Bavaria
Albert IV 1447-1508, reigned 1465-1508
William IV 1493-1550, reigned 1508/11-1550
Louis X 1495-1545, reigned in Landshut 1514-45
Albert V 1528-79, reigned 1550-79
Albert IV 1447-1508, reigned in 1465-1508
- in Bavaria-Munich from 1465 and in Bavaria-Landshut from 1505 -
Albert IV was the third of five sons of Duke Albert III (reigned 1438-1460). Albert IV gave up his spiritual career after the death of his eldest brother John in 1463. He took over the Bavarian government, first together with his older brother Sigismund and alone from 1467. He became one of the most prudent princes of Bavaria, promoted art and science and was nicknamed "the wise". Duke Albert IV was able to increase significantly the Bavarian territory, but had to renounce the possession of the old Bavarian capital Regensburg in 1492. After the death of George the Rich of Bavaria-Landshut without male descendants, Albrecht had to prevail against the Palatine Wittelsbacher in the Landshut War of Succession 1504/05. Emperor Maximilian I helped Albert to reach an agreement, which determined the reunification of Upper and Lower Bavaria. In order to avoid any future division of Bavaria, Albert IV decreed the everlasting succession of the firstborn prince in 1506. Albert IV initiated with his coin regulations of 1506/07 the coinage of larger nominal values in Bavaria.
Weißgroschen 1506, Munich. Ø 22 mm, 2,19 g. Hahn 8b; Witt. 197.
Obv.: ALBᗺRTVS BAVARIᗺ DVX (ᗺ = E)
Bust to the right, with hat and shouldered sword in a fine edging.
Rev.: ¤BAVARIᗺ (ᗺ retrograde) GROSSVS·I506
H - A (= Herzog Albert) over associated shields lion / rhombic, below loop.
Gulden 1506, Munich. Ø 22? mm, 3,28 g. Hahn 9; Witt.188c; Friedb.178.
Obv.: ·ALBERTI·AVRVM·BAVARIE DVCIS
Quartered coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria (lion/rhombic) between H - A (Herzog Albrecht), on top 1506.
Rev.: O MARIA¤ - ·ORA·PRO·ME· - kneeling duke in front of Maria sitting with child.
Gulden 1506, Munich. Ø 22 mm, 3,25 g. Hahn 11; Friedb.177.
Obv.: +ALBERTI·AVRVM·BAVARIE DVCIS
In trefoil: coat of arms between H - A, on top the date 1506.
Rev.: O MARIA. - ORA PRO·ME - kneeling duke in front of standing Maria with child.
Gulden 1506, Munich. Ø 22 mm, 3,23 g. Hahn 11; Friedb.177a.
Variant with the child on the right arm of Maria. DVCIS with typing error.
Schauguldiner 1507, dies from Benedikt Burkhart (Hall, Tirol). Ø 46 mm, 29,81 g.
Domanig 5 (Erzhaus) & 32 (Dt. Medaille); Witt.217; Moser-Tursky 87.
According Domanig the oldest German embossed medal.
Obv.: ALBERTI ¤ FIGVRACIO ¤ IEFFIGIEI ¤ BAVARIE ¤ DVCIS
effigy to the left, in armor with a wire hood and shouldered sword.
Rev.: ¤ ARMORVM ¤ BAVARIE ¤ DVCVM ¤ FIGVRA ¤ 1·5 0·Λ· (Λ = 7, not 4)
quartered coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria (lion/lozenge) with helmet and crest.
Gulden 1508, Straubing. Ø 22 mm, 3,25 g. Hahn 17; Witt.223b; Friedb.179.
Obv.: ✠ALBERT⦂AVB⦂BAVARIE⦂DVCI◦I508 - coat of arms between h - A, above S.
Rev.: O:MARIA - ¤ORA·PRO·ME¤ - kneeling duke in front of Maria sitting with child.
A mint in Straubing (mintmark S) produced Gulden, Halbbatzen, Pfennige and Heller in 1506-1511.
William IV 1493-1550, reigned 1508/11-1550
- first son of Albert IV. -
William IV followed his father Albert IV to the government at the age of 15 years in 1508, but he was under the guardianship of his uncle Wolfgang until 1511. In contradiction to the law of 'everlasting succession of the firstborn prince', his father decreed in 1506, William shared the government with his brother Louis in 1516. While William ruled over Munich and Burghausen, Ludwig ruled over Landshut and Straubing. William IV was able to keep his country out of the warlike events of the time. In the interior he fought, advised by his influential chancellor Leonhard von Eck , energetically against the Reformation, insurgent peasants and the Anabaptists. The Renaissance Prince William IV tried to strengthen the position of Bavaria against the House of Habsburg, but was defeated in the Bohemian royal election in 1526 and the German royal election in 1531 by King Ferdinand of Habsburg. The attempt to prevent the Habsburg increase in power on the one side and the fight against the Protestants and for the old church on the other side was a difficult tightrope walk for Wilhelm IV, who received the nickname "the steadfast".
Cast lead medal 1535, model by Matthes Gebel. Ø 42,5 mm. Habich 1122; Witt. 255.
Obv.: VVILHELM·VON·GOTS·GNADEN·PFALCZ GRAF·BEI·RHEIN·SEINS·ALLTERS·IM·XLI·IAR·
"William by the grace of God Palatine at the Rhine in his 41st year of age"
bearded bust with hat, coat and necklace to the right.
"Duke of Upper and Lower Bavaria etc, anno domini 1535"
quartered coat of arms Bavaria/Palatinate (rhombic/lion), double helmeted.
William's wife Jakobaea Maria of Baden, granddaughter of Christoph I.
Cast medal 1534, model by Matthes Gebel. Ø 39 mm, 37,73 g. Habich 1109; Witt.276.
Obv.: IACOBA·PFALZGZGR·BEI·RHENI· - HEROZ·IN·OB·VND·NI·BAIREN·IRS·ALTERS·XXVII·
Bust right with hood and feather hat.
Rev.: Two entwined hands hold heart with three flowers, above two lions with the Bavarian-Baden coat of arms, below three flowers. A wreath around.
Maria Jakobäa (1507-1580) married Duke Willliam IV of Bavaria in Munich on 5.10.1522.
William's and Jakobaea's son Theodor
Thick Schautaler 1533, model by Matthes Gebel. Ø 35 mm, 26,14 g. Hauser 13; Witt.555.
Obv.: *THEOD·ILLVST·DVC·BOIOR,·GVILELM·PRIMO G
"... William's Primogen (first born with succession claim)"
Youthful bust to the right with necklace and bandage on the head, on the sides the date I5 - 33.
Rev.: ·INSIGN· - ·QVATT'· - ·AVIAR' - ·THEOD· - Quartered coat of arms on a flower-cross, in the angels the coats of arms of Austria, Braunschweig, Katzenelnbogen and Palatinate Bavaria.
Theodor (1526-1534) was the eldest son. He would have become the next Bavarian Duke,
but he died at the age of only eight years.
Louis X 1495-1545, reigned in Landshut 1514-45
- second son of Albert IV -
When he came of age, Ludwig raised claims to the co-government on the grounds that he had been born before the law of primogeniture (everlasting succession of the firstborn prince) was established in 1506, and asked Emperor Maximilian I for help. Louis X. was appointed co-regent by his elder brother Duke William IV in 1516. Duke Louis X, who ruled in Landshut, held a close and good relationship with his brother Wilhelm IV, who ruled in Munich, and so they were able to fend off intrigues of all kinds. In 1526, Louis X applied for the Bohemian crown in 1526 and for the election of the Roman-German king in 1530, but lost against the later Emperor Ferdinand I. After the death of Louis X on 22.4.1545 in Landshut Wilhelm IV took over again the sole government. The disregard of primogeniture ended and should never be repeated.
Cast silver medal 1535, model by Matthes Gebel. Ø 42 mm, 30,00 g. Habich 1123; Witt.264.
Obv.: LVDVIG·VON·GOTS·GNADEN·PFACZ GRAF·BEI·RHEIN·SEINS·ALTERS·IM·XXXVIII·IAR·
"Louis by the grace of God, count Palatine of the Rhine, in his 38th year of age"
Bearded bust right, with hat, coat and necklace.
"duke of upper and lower Bavaria etc, anno domini 1535"
quartered coat of arms Bavaria/Palatinate (rhombic/lion), doubly helmeted including crests.
Silver medal n. d. c. 1535 by "Meister der Gruppe des Herzogs Ludwig".
Ø 24,3 mm, 9,86 g. Habich 1327; Witt.268.
Obv.: ¤LVDOVICus:COMEs - PALATInus:RHENI VTRIsque:BAVvariae·DVX
"Louis count Palatine of the Rhin duke of both Bavarias" - Bust as before.
Rev.: ¤FLOREAT·SEMPER·BAVARiae·REGIO "Always flourish the Bavarian region"
Quartered coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria (lion/rhombic).
Cast medal 1535, unsigned. Ø 25,45 mm, 6,08 g. Habich 1324; Witt. 114.
Bust to the left, with fur hood and hat / coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria.
SI DEVS NOBISCVM QVIS CONTRA NOS = "If God is with us, who can be against us?"
Cast medal n. d. (1535) by Ludwig Neufahrer. Ø 40,3 mm, 23,99 g. Habich 1325; Witt.265.
Obv.: LVDOVICVS·COMES·PALATINVS· RHENI· - VTRIVSQVE·BAVARIE·DVX·
Bust left with a flat hat and a fur hood.
Rev.: SI·DEVS·NOBISCVM·QVIS·CONTRA·NOS· - quartered coat of arms doubly helmeted.
Cast medal 1540, unsigned. Ø 36,9 mm, 22,69 g. Habich 1411; Witt. 269.
Obv.: LVDOVIC·COMES·PALATIN9·RHENI·VTRIVSQ BAVA·DVX
Bust to the left, with beret and fur hood between date 15 - 40.
Personification of Bavaria with a mural crown in a chariot drawn by two lions to the left.
Albert V. 1528-1579, reigned 1550-79
- son of William IV -
Ducat n. d., Munich. Ø 21 mm, 3,43 g. Hahn 50; Witt.418a/c; Friedb.183.
Obv.: ✥ALBERTus9·COMes·PAlatinus·Rheni·BAVAriae·DVx· [9 = us]
Bearded bust to the left with a cap and the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Rev.: SI·DEus9·NOBIScum - QVIs·CONtra'·NOS "If God is with us, who can be against us?"
Quartered shield Palatinate/Bavaria surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Duke Albrecht V had been awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1546.
Gold medal n. d., after 1554, unsigned, model by Hans Ässlinger. Ø 28,5 mm, 14,90 g.
Habich 3174; Witt.387.
Bareheaded bust to the right with decorated armor and collar of the order from the Golden Fleece.
Rev.: SI DEVS NOBISCVM - QVIS CONTRA NOS
Quartered shield Bavaria/Palatinate, surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Touch the picture in order to see the revers.
Cast silver medaillon 1558. by Hans Ässlinger, original cast. Ø 124 mm, 402,8 g.
Habich 3176; Witt.388.
Bearded bust to the right, in decorated armor with Golden Fleece and sash.
Rev.: PARCERE SVBIECTIS ET DEBELLARE SVPERBOS 1558
"Protect subjugated and defeat the arrogant" (Virgil, Aeneid)
Lion tears bull, on the right another lion protects a lamb. Two castles connected by a bridge over
a raging river are in the background. On top an angel is hovering with two wreaths.
2 Ducats 1565, Munich. Ø 25 mm, 7,03 g. Hahn 52; Witt.414; Friedb.182.
Bust to the right, in armor and shouldering the sword with his right hand.
Rev.: NON·NOBbis:DOmibe:Non:NObis - SED·NOMine:Tuo:Da:GLORiam·15·65·
"Not us, O Lord, not us, but your name give honor!"
Quartered shield Palatine/Bavaria, surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Schautaler 1576. workshop H. Gerhard. Ø 43 mm, 29,10 g. Habich II,2 3188; Witt.408.
Obv.: ✥ALBERTVS D.G:COM PAL:RHE.VTRIVS:BAVA:DVX
Bust in armor to the right, with coat and collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Two troops moving against each other, left army leader with flag on a horse leaping to the right.
Duke Albert V together with his wife Anna
Albert V married in 1546 in Regensburg Archduchess Anna of Austria, a daughter
of Emperor Ferdinand I and his wife Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
Silber medal n. d., later cast. Ø 71,2 mm, 96,00 g. Witt.393.
ALBERT9 D:G COMES PALATIN9·RHENI·VTRI9 Q·BAVARIÆ·DVX·MONARCH CO HIRS SVABECKI
Half-length of Albert V in armor with shouldered sword and his wife Anna, opposite each other. Above the escutcheons of Bavaria and Habsburg side by side, surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. On top two angels with wreaths hold the princely hat.
Rev.: LVDOVICVS·IIII - ROM·IMPERATOR - AVGVSTVS·P·F· - GERMAN·REX
inside: ·DVX·BAVARIÆ - COMES·HOLANDI - Æ·SELANDIÆ - FRISIÆ·
Imperial double eagle with bavarian shield on the chest. Four small shields interrupt the legend.
Embosed silber medal n. d., c. 1576. Ø 81 mm, 113,0 g. Habich 3185; Witt.405.
Obv.: ALBERTVS:D:G:COM:PAL:RHE:VTRIVS:BAVA:DVX:ANNA:AB:AVS: DI:FERD:I:CÆ:AVG:PII:FEL:FIL:ÆC·
Bust of the couple almost from the front, the duke bareheaded in armor with field bandage and
collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the Duchess with hood. In front of the couple the
quartered Bavarian shield split below by the Austrian shield.
Rev.: SI DEVS NOBISCVM - QVIS CONTRA NOS "If God is with us, who can be against us?"
Two lions standing on rocks hold the twice-helmeted, quartered Bavarian coat of arms.
Behind a view of Munich with the two towered cathedral Frauenkirche.
Around a circle of 34 coat of arms of Bavarian cities: 1. Munich, 2. Landshut,
3. Straubing, 4. Wasserburg, 5. Reichenhall, 6. Schongau, 7. Kelheim, 8. Weilheim, 9. Friedberg, 10. Aichach, 11. Ötting,
12. Pfaffenhofen, 13. Moosburg, 14. Osterhofen, 15. Neustadt a. D., 16. Schrobenhausen, 17. Furth, 18. Grafenau,
19. Stadtamhof, 20. Dietfurt, 21. Abensberg, 22. Wemding, 23. Landau, 24. Erding, 25. Dingolfing, 26. Schärding,
27. Traunstein, 28. Rain, 29. Vilshofen, 30. Deggendorf, 31. Braunau, 32. Burghausen, 33. Landsberg, 34. Ingolstadt.
• Hahn, W.R.O. : Typenkatalog der Münzen der bayerischen Herzöge und Kurfürsten 1506-1805.
• Habich, G. : Die deutschen Schaumünzen des XVI. Jahrhunderts
- Bd.I, 1st part: Munich 1929. XXXVI & 130 p. (No.1-?) & plates 1-109
- Bd.I, 2: Munich 1931. p. XLI-LXXVI & 131-262 (No.?956-1843) & plates 110-196
- Bd.II,1: Munich 1932. p. LXXXI-CXXIV & 263-460 (No.1844-3182) & plates 197-302[CXCVII-CCCII]
- Bd.II,2: Munich 1934. p. CXXIX-CXXII & 461-557 & plates CCCIII-CCCXXXIV + [appendix] 48 S.
• Beierlein, J.P. [Witt.] : Die Medaillen und Münzen des Gesamthauses Wittelsbach. Munich 1897/1901.